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This monograph also provides a good introduc- tion to the research literature on small groups order 0.4 mg tamsulosin visa man health today. Another excellent guide order 0.4mg tamsulosin visa androgenic hormones birth control, to both the theory and the practice of group work, is D. However, most medical teachers, at some time, will wish to make a presentation at a scientific meeting. There are many obvious similarities between giving a lecture and presenting a paper. There are also significant differences which may not be quite so obvious which made us feel that this chapter might be appreciated. Poster sessions are growing in popularity at many national and international meetings as an alternative to the formal presentation of papers. We have, therefore, included a short segment on the preparation of a conference poster. PRESENTING A PAPER Though much of the advice given in the chapter on lecturing is just as relevant in this section, the aims of a scientific meeting or conference are different enough to warrant separate consideration. If you are in the position to give a paper it is certain that you will have a lot to say, far more in fact than can possibly be delivered in such a short time. You will also be caught in the difficult situation of having many of the audience unfamiliar with the details of your area of interest, some of the audience knowing consider- ably more than you do about the area, and all of the audience likely to be critical of the content and presenta- tion. These and other factors make the giving of a scientific paper an anxiety provoking situation, particularly for the young and inexperienced lecturer hoping to make a good impression on peers and superiors. However, it is also a situation that is amenable to resolution by careful planning and attention to technique. PREPARING THE PAPER Much of the advice that follows was admirably dealt with many years ago in the classic book by Calnan and Barabas entitled Speaking at Medical Meetings, They described three stages that you must go through during the preparation of a short scientific communication. The arrangement (getting the structure right and deciding on the most suitable visual aids). The collection and selection of the data There is a great tendency for speakers to cram more than is possible into their papers with the inevitable conse- quence of either speaking too fast or going over time. The audience knows that it is not possible to cover everything in detail and is primarily interested in hearing a short cohesive account of your research. To achieve this you are not going to be able to present all your hard-won data. You are going to have to be very selective and in most instances you will have to restrict yourself to one aspect of your work. Your first step should be to write down in one sentence the main purpose of your paper. Having done this you should identify the three or four pieces of evidence you will use to give support to your views. You should keep in mind that you will only have two or three minutes to describe each piece of work so that when you are assembling your data you must be aware of the need to simplify the results into a more easily digested form (e. Introduction Statement of the purpose of your research Description of methods and results Conclusions The introduction: this is a vital component of your talk. It must set the context of your work for the audience, many of whom may not be experts in your field. They may also be 57 suffering the after effects of the previous paper or of a dash from another concurrent session venue. You have no more than two minutes to excite the interest of the audience before they relapse into the mental torpor so prevalent at scientific meetings. You must therefore give a consider- able amount of thought to the introduction. It must start from a broad base so that the audience can identify the point at which your research fits into the scheme of things and make them appreciate the vital importance of your own contribution. The statement of purpose: this should take no more than a minute but it is also a vital component of the talk. In these few sentences you will have to convince the audience that what you set out to do was worthwhile. It should flow from the introduction so that it sounds like a logical outcome of previous research. The description of methods and results: the description of methods will usually have to be abbreviated or even reduced to a mention (‘The so-and-so technique was used to... If the development of a new method is an important part of your work then obviously it must be described in more detail but you must decide whether the main message is to relate to the method or the results subsequently obtained.

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For example tamsulosin 0.2 mg lowest price prostate cancer effects, we know students’ atten­ tion is low 30 minutes into a session buy 0.2mg tamsulosin with visa prostate 2, so material designed to alert might be of use at this point. At another point you may want to show a graph as evi­ dence to support your spoken message. There is no point in preparing slides if another lecturer has booked the projector or there is no way of dimming the lights in the teaching room. Consider timescales Designing teaching materials is one of the most time-consuming aspects of preparing for a teaching session. Check that you have enough time to PREPARING MATERIALS FOR TEACHING 143 put together your materials. This is particularly important if you rely on somebody else to do your typing or your photocopying. Aim to make your materials reusable and suitable for a variety of contexts. Design your materials for your students Students with special needs – a student with a visual impairment may need written or pictorial material adapted or an alternative provided. Gender differences – there may be differences between men and women in how they assimilate information. A study by Togo and Hood in 1992 showed female students did less well than their male peers when informa­ tion was presented exclusively in a graphic format. Another group of women who were given information conveyed by both text and graphics did better. These results suggest that the use of a mixture of text and visuals might be more suitable for a group of mixed gender students. Always refer back to your original plan when making your final deci­ sions on your choice of material. General guidelines for using teaching materials Support the spoken word Remember that your acetate, slide or handout is there to reinforce your spoken message. Always ask yourself – is this slide, acetate or handout absolutely necessary? It must add information, help explain a point or illustrate the message you are trying to convey through speech. Pace your presentation Use your materials at well-spaced intervals in order to increase interest and gain maximum impact. Use colour with effect Colour can add interest and help the audience understand information faster. It can help structure your material and guide the audience’s atten­ tion. Use dark colours (like black, dark green or blue) and warm colours (like red or orange) that advance or stand out to: ° highlight key information ° indicate headings and subheadings ° emphasise the significance of an item ° make a small drawing or part of a larger drawing stand out. Use cool colours (like pale blue or green) that recede: ° as a background colour ° on words or numerals that have less importance ° for large items or areas. Use the same colours for the same items throughout your visuals, for example green for population figures, drugs in red. Overhead projector An overhead projector, or OHP, projects written or printed images from acetate sheets onto a screen in an enlarged form. Acetates are easy to prepare and are useful for displaying numerical information as well as text. These may be pre-prepared or handwritten straight onto the acetate during a teaching session. The main consideration when using an OHP is that there is a limit to the amount of information that can be clearly portrayed at any one time. Too much text means having to use smaller print in order to fit it onto the PREPARING MATERIALS FOR TEACHING 145 acetate. This will be difficult to read from a distance and requires more time for students to assimilate all the details. It is therefore important when preparing acetates that you make text legible and restrict the amount of data.

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