By A. Bufford. Chapman University.
Social exclusion Exclusion is concerned with those on the margins of society buy discount amoxil 500mg on line bacteria that causes tuberculosis, those who have an ‘inability to participate effectively in economic amoxil 500mg sale antibiotics for uti e coli, social political and cultural life’ (Oppenheim 1998, p. Often exclusion is about the incapacity of individuals to control their lives, and it requires inclusive policies to bring about change, to provide an opportunity for each citizen ‘to develop their potential’ (Morris 2001, p. Indeed, as Middleton (1999) found, even the Social Exclusion Unit (http://www. It would seem that exclusion of children with disabilities is not a concept of which the Social Exclusion Unit has much understanding. This lack of recognition impacts on families with disabled children because participation with others in their daily lives is difficult in whatever form of relationship that takes, where an experience of potential exclusion may occur. Hence, the term ‘exclusion’ helps provide a benchmark when assessing the involvement of individuals within their daily activities. I define exclusion with regard to siblings as follows: Social exclusion is a deliberate prohibition or restriction which prevents a sibling from engaging in activities shared by others. It may be a form of oppression, as experienced when denying an individual his or her entitlement to express their views or a form of segregation when only individuals with certain characteristics are allowed to engage in THEORY AND PRACTICE / 25 particular activities (restrictive attitudes or membership entitlement based on race being examples). Empowerment The idea of empowerment is pertinent to the situation of siblings of children with disabilities and disabled people generally: it is based on the need for making choices (Sharkey 2000), a basic right of consumers. Empowerment may include power, as a worker may empower, by enabling access to a service that is needed (Dowson 1997, p. However, when children have disabilities, parents and indeed, professionals might, under- standably, tend to be more focused on the child with disabilities and not on the needs of siblings. The needs of sibling’s should also be recognised as part of the family experience of living with disability and siblings should be included in whatever concerns their brother or sister. Empowerment is defined as follows: Empowerment is about enabling choices to be made and is vital to the needs of individuals, especially so, if an element of choice is lacking, as it will be for some family members due to exclusion or neglect, deliberate or not. The initial stage of empowerment requires individuals to be included in decisions which concern their needs. This represents the first stage of enabling the process of choice and freedom of access to begin. The ‘key terms’, neglect, social exclusion and empowerment, were implicit in my pilot study (Burke and Montgomery 2001a), and now, following the research, I can clarify the sense behind this initial conceptual understand- ing. My prior concern was to promote the term ‘social inclusion’ rather than ‘social exclusion’ as defined above. This is because my research work revealed more ‘social exclusion’ than the polar opposite ‘inclusion’. Indeed, the process of empowerment itself should seek to redress the position of exclusion by promoting an inclusive experience. This under- standing enables us to begin to prescribe a role for welfare professionals, defining their task as enabling families to become included families – that is, helping family members to make choices from a range of support services. It certainly appears to be the case, as demonstrated by Burke and Cigno (1996), that most families welcome the offer of professional support. Services are a basic requirement for the family, but families might need encouragement to secure them, and siblings, more often than not, might be excluded from elements of service provision, except when they have access to a siblings group or services designed to facilitate their needs. Community interaction (poor image association) Social Neglect Exclusion Family and social experience Sense of (leading to disability by difference association) or loss Professional intervention or self-actualisation Empowerment Figure 1. The latter may be due to bad experiences at school, with friends or on social occasions, which in combination develop a sense of disability within the sibling, or disability by association. The sense is that disability is viewed by ‘normal’ people as different, which leads to a stigma associated with disability. When a person is stigmatised by disability then ‘normal’ people erect a barrier to exclude the ‘infectiousness’ of the perceived stigma. This means that associating THEORY AND PRACTICE / 27 with disability is likely to be transmitted to the normal world, and as such it is feared. The impact of this is probably a result of negatively conveyed social attitudes, which with a typical ‘young carers’ role at home must influence the sibling’s concept of self with certain disadvantages compared with their peers. The escape route from the perception of disad- vantage, or disability by association, is through some means of empowerment: that is, to gain a positive identity in relationships with others. The role of the sibling support group, reported on in Chapter 7 provides one way by which this may be achieved. Chapter 2 A Framework for Analysis The Research Design This chapter examines the construction of typologies and the research design that enabled the differing experiences of siblings with a disabled brother or sister to be more clearly understood. The underlying thesis as developed in Chapter 1 is that siblings experience disability by association, because the experience of living with a disabled brother or sister, which will seem perfectly ordinary, will to some extent become a disabling experience for them, changes their lives as a consequence of this and because of interactive experiences away from home, at school, with friends and during outings with their family.
Voluntary contractions have also © 2001 by CRC Press LLC been performed with recording electrodes used to monitor the stimulation frequency over time order amoxil 250mg free shipping infection smell. The effects of recruitment and the order of motor unit recruitment have been investigated by placing small electrodes within a muscle and recording the electrical activities of single motor units as a person voluntarily contracts the muscle and generates increasingly greater force generic amoxil 500 mg online antibiotics for acne probiotics. Motor units are activated and deactivated in a speciﬁc order. In these studies, a person utilizes a muscle to produce a given level of force. A muscle biopsy is taken and those ﬁbers depleted of glycogen are identiﬁed and classiﬁed. In general, oxidative ﬁbers are recruited ﬁrst, followed by the glycolytic ﬁbers. Force and Length The sliding ﬁlament theory of muscle length change was developed from results of phase-contrast and interference microscopy75,76,78 while the mechanisms responsible for the parabolic force-length relation- ship were demonstrated using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. This led to the proposal that ﬁlaments slid past one another during muscle length changes. Electron microscopy later identiﬁed the individual ﬁlaments and the cross-bridges connecting them. Electron microscopy also revealed that cross-bridges could only move about 100 to 140 Å while the length changes observed in the ﬁber were on the order of 30% of the original length. This led to the proposal that cross-bridge cycling must occur and that the cross-bridges act as individual force generators. Support for this idea came with the recording of both force and length changes. It was shown that the greatest force occurred when there was optimal overlap of thick and thin ﬁlaments, and that the active force decreased in a linear fashion as the length was increased until the thick and thin ﬁlaments no longer overlapped, at which time the active force was zero. Studies of the force-length behaviors of intact muscles have also been performed. These studies rely on force transducers or dynamometers to quantify muscle force or joint torque. Muscle length changes are recorded using video analysis techniques, extensometers, and/or limb displacement measurements combined with musculoskeletal models. Force and Velocity The force-velocity relationship of muscle has been derived based on numerous studies of both isolated and intact muscles. The resistive loads were created with weights and lever systems or electro- magnetic devices. The results demonstrate the hyperbolic decrement in velocity for increased load. The experiments conducted on intact muscle involved joint dynamometers which can control either the joint torque or joint angular velocity. The results from intact muscle do not always match those of isolated muscle, but the general trend of decreased velocity for increased force or torque does apply. Muscle models have also been used to investigate architectural effects. Following the mechanical testing, the muscle was examined via one of the techniques discussed previously to classify the ﬁber type. Studies of intact human muscles have relied on muscle biopsies to quantify the relative percentage of each ﬁber type within a muscle combined with joint testing to quantify the torque and power produced by that muscle, and the muscle’s fatigue resistance. Testing is usually performed using a single joint and a joint dynamometer or a speciﬁc movement such as cycling. If a decrement in force results from some mechanisms outside the muscle, then electrical stimulation can be used to elicit a greater force output. For example, if force output during a maximum isometric contraction declines but can be returned to the initial value through external stimulation to the muscle, then the site of fatigue occurred outside the muscle. The site of fatigue within a muscle is difﬁcult to isolate and probably varies depending on the contractile conditions. Fibers have been injected with fura-2 which binds with calcium and can be tracked using digital imaging ﬂuorescence microscopy. This technique has been used to determine whether the excitation signal is carried into the center of the cell and pH probes have been used to determine whether cellular pH changes occur to cause fatigue. Caffeine has been used to determine whether fatigue is due to insufﬁcient activation of the contractile proteins. Caffeine has the effects of increasing the release of calcium from the SR, reducing the uptake of calcium by the SR, and increasing the troponin C sensitivity to calcium.
Another illness that can cause confusion is a very rare disease of unknown cause cheap amoxil 500mg antimicrobial office products, known as SAPHO syndrome (because of its salient features: synovitis discount amoxil 250 mg fast delivery antibiotics for moderate acne, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and aseptic osteomyelitis). This disease causes bone damage that sometimes affects the sacroiliac joints or the spine. As explained in Chapter 3, the disease usually begins as an inﬂammation in the sacroiliac joints. When these joints become inﬂamed they cause pain that you can feel not just over the joints but diffusely over the buttock (gluteal) area. The sacro- iliac joints usually become tender on direct ﬁrm pressure in the early stages, but the pain and ten- derness gradually get less over the years as the sacroiliac joints become fused and replaced by bone. When the inﬂammation spreads to involve the lumbar spine, you will be aware of low back pain and stiffness. The inﬂammation and pain can result in muscle spasm and tenderness, as well as stiffness of the back. There is a natural tendency to stoop forward to mini- mize the symptoms, because backward stretching is uncomfortable. This can gradually lead to irreversible bad posture, because if the inﬂammation is not resolved the body begins a gradual repair process that results in further limitation of back motion due to thefacts 101 AS-15(101-110) 5/29/02 5:52 PM Page 102 Ankylosing spondylitis: the facts (a) (b) (c) Figure 17 The effects of AS on posture: (a) A healthy person standing erect: Note the hollow lower (lumbar) back and the inclination of the pelvis. Also shown, in a schematic drawing (slightly exaggerated), the transmission of body weight vertically downward (arrow) through the hip joints (black), oblique to the plane of the pelvis. The center of gravity is vertically in line with the hip, knee and ankle joints. Note the upright position of the pelvis and elimination of the lumbar hollow (i. The whole static equilibrium is changed; there is some forward stooping of the neck, and the beginnings of upper thoracic kyphosis. Note the ﬂexion contracture of the hip joints and the flexed knees, to keep the gaze horizontal. Chest expansion is limited, so the diaphragm must be used for breathing, which makes the abdomen look more prominent (‘rubber ball belly’). The name enthesis is given to these sites, and the inﬂammatory lesion is called enthe- sitis or sometimes enthesopathy. The doctor should check for pain and tenderness along the back, pelvic bones, sacroiliac joints, and the chest, looking for the presence of enthesitis. There may be heel swelling and tenderness either at the site of insertion of the Achilles tendon to the calcaneus (heel bone), or at the site of the attach- ment of the plantar fascia to the same bone at the bottom of the heel (see Figure 18). The medical names for these conditions are Achilles tendinitis, and plantar fasciitis respectively. A process of healing and repair, which follows the enthesitis phase, results in gradual limitation of back motion due to scarring and subsequent bone thefacts 103 AS-15(101-110) 5/29/02 5:52 PM Page 104 Ankylosing spondylitis: the facts Figure 19 formation. This process may, after many years, lead ultimately to complete spinal fusion. Any clinical examination to look for the presence of AS must therefore include a thorough examination of spinal mobility in all directions (Figure 5), Chapter 3. The inﬂammatory changes affect the superﬁcial layers of the ligament (annulus ﬁbrosus) that surrounds the disc, especially at its attachment to the corners of the vertebral bodies, resulting in increased bone density (sclerosis) of these corners, seen on X-ray as shiny corners (Figure 19). The bone at these corners may subsequently disappear, and this may ultimately result in squaring of the vertebral bodies. Gradually a thin layer of vertical bony outgrowths at the edges of the vertebrae bridges the gap between the two adjacent vertebral bodies, replacing the superﬁcial layer of the annulus ﬁbrosus of the disc. This intervertebral bony bridging that surrounds the disc is called a syndesmophyte (Figure 19). At the same time, inﬂammatory changes and slowly progressive bony fusion may be going on in spinal joints called the apophyseal or facet joints (Figure 19). Thus in someone with severe disease the inﬂammatory process of the spine may gradually, after many years, result in complete fusion (also 104 thefacts AS-15(101-110) 5/29/02 5:52 PM Page 105 The disease process called bony ankylosis) of the whole spine. The X-ray of the spine may ultimately look like a bamboo and is sometimes called bamboo spine. Spinal osteoporosis (discussed earlier) is also fre- quently observed among such patients, partly as a result of the lack of spinal mobility and aging.
Without doubt amoxil 500mg antibiotic justification form, in the facial zone over the iliac crest in men generic 500 mg amoxil fast delivery antimicrobial 2012, it appears as a deep band that is not found in the female sex. Instead, in women, the ﬁbrous band appears with the muscular aponeurosis at a level of the subgluteous that constitutes the base for the adipose tissue situated in this zone. This dif- ference explains the difference in the contour of the gluteus between the two sexes. The skin, the superﬁcial fascia, and the superﬁcial fat must be considered as a system of protection and functional support. This functional unity constitutes the support of the adipose fabric and helps to prevent the abnormal location of this fabric in other anatomi- cal regions. The traction and stretching of the superﬁcial facial band and the superﬁcial 1 muscular fascia with Endermologie are essential in the treatment. A well-done massage relaxes the body and the mind to increase the skin temperature with stimulation of the microcirculation, which favors intercellular exchange. A global massage of the body can have a sedative action and, at the same time, stimulate the nervous system. A massage should not be violent or prolonged to avoid provoking lymphatic congestion. Lymphatic drainage is not traumatic, but a gentle massaging technique. Manual lymphatic drainage has its scientiﬁc basis in the study and teachings of Foldi (16) and Leduc (17). It deals with a series of grazing and compressions on the lymphatic system to improve lymphatic ﬂow. In the technique of Vodder, lymphatic drai- nage becomes less physical and more aesthetic in nature. Periodic cycles of manual lym- phatic drainage are recommended by Vodder, primarily to keep the tissues free from lymphatic congestion. We believe that manual lymphatic drainage performed with the hands is the only method that gives acceptable results. The French engineer Louis Paul Guitay developed a system to help in the treatment of ﬁbrosis. He developed this based on a violent trauma that resembled the movement performed by his therapist’s ﬁngers, including additional effects. Sophisticated software allows for possible phases of continu- ous and sequential aspiration with mobilization of the tissues, offering the therapist an endless range of possibilities for interventions appropriate for various pathologies. It began as a true revolution in physiotherapy and today scientiﬁc research has conﬁrmed the effectiveness of this method. This revolution has also given birth to an important pro- fessional team formed by doctor/surgeon and physiotherapist, a union that is important in the ﬁelds of phlebolymphology. The hands of the therapist are helped by the integrated action of this equipment, allowing one to make the same physiotherapy maneuvers enriched by stretching the cutaneous fabrics and enabling one to work with deeper layers. The effect is mainly the ENDERMOLOGIE1 IN CELLULITE TREATMENT & 179 Figure 4 The ﬁrst goal of Endermologie1 was to improve the clinical results offered by the ﬁngers. Make the correct diagnosis, to apply the therapy or the suitable program, and 2. MECHANISM OF ACTION 1 Endermologie performs ﬁve complementary actions that allow treatment of different types of tissue: 1. Mobilization of the tissues that characterize the different structures with consequent activation of the arteriolar microcirculation; 2. Traction of the connective tissue with exercise of the skin; 3. Activation of the reﬂected arcs and stimulation of ﬁbrous banding; 4. Neurometabolic regulation with metabolic activation; 5. Rhythmic compression of the tissues with lymph drainage. Together, the stretching and the rhythmic compression of connective tissue activate fat lobules to cause their shrinkage with stretching of the ﬁbrous septae (Fig.