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It is also useful to have people comment on your methodology or analysis assumptions which could be criticised by other researchers buy 150 mg fluconazole with amex oyster fungus definition. ORAL PRESENTATIONS Another method of presenting your research findings is through an oral presentation buy 200mg fluconazole visa antifungal quizlet. This may be at a university or college to other students or tutors, at a conference to other researchers or work colleagues, or in a work place to colleagues, employers or funding bodies. Many re- searchers find that it is better to provide both a written report and an oral presentation as this is the most effective way of enabling a wider audience to find out about the re- search, especially if you also reproduce your written re- port on-line. If you want people to take notice of your results, you need to produce a good presentation. PowerPoint is a useful presentation graphics program which enables you to create slides that can be shared live or on-line. You can enhance your presentation with ani- mation, artwork and diagrams which make it more inter- esting for your audience. Acknowledge that this is your first Everybody gets nervous when they presentation and people will tend to first start giving presentations and help you along. Produce aide memoirs, either on Read straight from a paper you have cards, paper, OHP transparencies or written. Make it clear from the outset Get cross if you are interrupted and whether you are happy to be have not mentioned that you don’t interrupted or whether questions want this to happen. If you have and then do not answer them or invited questions, make sure you patronise the inquirer. Look around the room while you are Look at your notes, never raising speaking – if it’s a small group, make your head. Present interesting visual Produce visual information which information such as graphs, charts people can’t see, either due to its size and tables in a format which can be or print quality. Alter the tone and pitch of your Present in a monotone voice with no voice, length of sentence and facial/ facial/hand gestures. Make it clear hand gestures to maintain audience that your subject bores the pants off interest. Produce a paper or handout which Let the audience go home without people can take away with them. HOW TO REPORT YOUR FINDINGS/ 143 SUMMARY X There are three main ways of reporting your findings: written reports, journal articles and oral presentations. X Before starting your research, find out whether you are going to be restricted by structure, style and content of your final report. X A traditional written report includes the following: – title page – contents page – list of illustrations – acknowledgements – abstract/summary – introduction – background – methodology/methods – findings/analysis – conclusions – recommendations – further research – references – bibliography – appendices. X If you are interested in writing an article for a journal, do your market research. Make sure that the subject matter, style, structure and length of your article suit the journal. X Try to seek advice and comments from people experi- enced in writing journal articles. If you were to do so, your work would reach a wider audience than it might do otherwise. Arrive early, make sure equipment works and that you have everything you need. X Show that you are interested in what you are saying and try to keep audience interest by using visual aids and altering tone, pitch and gestures. X Don’t shrug off questions or patronise your audience – pitch your presentation at the right level. X Never let an audience leave without taking away a re- cord of what you have said. If we expect them to give up their valuable time to help us, it follows that we should offer them something in return. Many people are willing to disclose a lot of personal in- formation during our research so we need to make sure that we treat both the participants and the information they provide with honesty and respect.

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Both types of conversion take place in the presence and terium divides to yield two daughter cells that differ from one the absence of oxygen buy 200mg fluconazole fast delivery fungus gnats lemon juice. The conversion of carbon dioxide to sugar is an When a bacterium divides cheap 150 mg fluconazole with mastercard antifungal powder for jock itch, one cell is motile by virtue of energy-requiring process that generates oxygen as a by-prod- a single flagellum at one end. This daughter cell is cules is cycled further by microorganisms in a series of reac- called the stalk cell. The stalk is an outgrowth of the cell wall, tions that form the so-called tricarboxylic acid (or TCA) cycle. In anaerobic environments, microorganisms can cycle the car- The swarmer cell remains motile for 30 to 45 minutes. The cell bon compounds to yield energy in a process known as fer- swims around and settles onto a new surface where the food mentation. After settling, the flagellum is shed and the Carbon dioxide can be converted to another gas called bacterium differentiates into a stalk cell. This occurs in anaerobic environments, such cycle the stalk becomes longer and can grow to be several as deep compacted mud, and is accomplished by bacteria times as long as the body of the bacterium. The conversion, which The regulation of gene expression is different in the requires hydrogen, yields water and energy for the swarmer and stalk cells. To complete the recycling pattern another group occurs immediately in the stalk cell but for reasons yet to be of methane bacteria called methane-oxidizing bacteria or determined is repressed in the swarmer cell. However, when a methanotrophs (literally “methane eaters”) can convert swarmer cell differentiates into a stalk cell, replication of the methane to carbon dioxide. This conversion, which is an aer- genetic material immediately commences. Thus, the transition obic (oxygen-requiring) process, also yields water and energy. There they have access to the methane The genetics of the swarmer to stalk cell cycle are com- produced by the anaerobic methanogenic bacteria, but also plex, with at least 500 genes known to play a role in the struc- access to the oxygen needed for their conversion of the tural transition. Other microorganisms are able to participate in the Caulobacter crescentus can be grown in the laboratory cycling of carbon. For example the green and purple sulfur so that all the bacteria in the population undergoes division at bacteria are able to use the energy they gain from the degra- the same time. This type of growth is termed synchronous dation of a compound called hydrogen sulfide to degrade car- growth. Other bacteria such as Thiobacillus the various events in gene regulation necessary for growth and ferrooxidans uses the energy gained from the removal of an division. The anerobic degradation of carbon is done only by See also Bacterial appendages; Bacterial surface layers; Cell microorganisms. This degradation is a collaborative effort cycle (prokaryotic), genetic regulation of; Phenotypic variation involving numerous bacteria. Examples of the bacteria include Bacteroides succinogenes, Clostridium butyricum, and Syntrophomonas sp. This bacterial collaboration, which is CDC • see CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL (CDC) termed interspecies hydrogen transfer, is responsible for the bulk of the carbon dioxide and methane that is released to the atmosphere. Cech has revolutionized the way in which scientists look at RNA and at proteins. Up to the time of Cech’s discoveries in 1981 and 1982, it had been thought that CAULOBACTER genetic coding, stored in the DNA of the nucleus, was Caulobacter imprinted or transcribed onto RNA molecules. These RNA Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative rod-like bacterium molecules, it was believed, helped transfer the coding onto that inhabits fresh water. It is noteworthy principally because proteins produced in the ribosomes. Instead of dividing two was thus the information center of the cell, while protein mol- form two identical daughter cells as other bacteria do (a ecules in the form of enzymes were the workhorses, catalyz- process termed binary division), Caulobacter crescentus ing the thousands of vital chemical reactions that occur in the undergoes what is termed symmetric division. Conventional wisdom held that the two functions were 101 Cech, Thomas R. WORLD OF MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY separate—that there was a delicate division of labor. Cech and others discovered that portions of seemingly noncoded DNA his colleagues at the University of Colorado established, how- were snipped out of the RNA and the chain was spliced back ever, that this picture of how RNA functions was incorrect; together where these intervening segments had been removed. It was a discovery that reverberated through- Cech and his coworkers were not initially interested in out the scientific community, leading not only to new tech- such introns, but they soon became fascinated with their func- nologies in RNA engineering but also to a revised view of the tion and the splicing mechanism itself. Cech shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for how these so-called nonsense sequences, or introns, were Chemistry with Sidney Altman at Yale University for their removed from the transcribed RNA, Cech and his colleague work regarding the role of RNA in cell reactions.

Then order fluconazole 200 mg visa antifungal socks, using another type of enzyme ing or other animal viruses into plasmids or other viral DNAs called terminal transferase generic 200mg fluconazole fast delivery fungal zygomycosis, he added one base at a time to one that could spread the DNA to other bacteria, animals or side of the double-stranded molecule. Thus, he formed a chain humans, “and thus possibly increase the incidence of cancer or that extended out from the double-stranded portion. Such comple- California, on February 27, 1975, at Asilomar and brought mentary extended portions of DNA that bind to each other to together a hundred scientists from sixteen countries. In effect, scientists would be able to make enormous laborate on developing safeguards to prevent genetically engi- amounts of particular genes they wanted to study, or use sim- neered organisms designed only for laboratory study from ple organisms like bacteria to grow large amounts of valuable being able to survive in humans. And they drew up professional substances like human growth hormone, antibiotics, and standards to govern research in the new technology, which, insulin. Researchers also recognized that genetic engineering, though backed only by the force of moral persuasion, repre- as the technique was quickly dubbed, could be used to alter sented the convictions of many of the leading scientists in the soil bacteria to give them the ability to “fix” nitrogen from the field. These standards served as a blueprint for subsequent fed- air, thus reducing the need for artificial fertilizers. But he realized regulations have been relaxed or eliminated, except in the cases the potential danger of inserting a mammalian tumor gene into of recombinant organisms that include extensive DNA regions a bacterium that exists universally in the environment. He pathogenic characteristics that threatened humans or other is also doing research in molecular biology of HIV–1. In his own case, he The Nobel Award announcement by the Royal Swedish feared that adding the tumor-causing SV40 DNA into such a Academy of Sciences cited Berg “for his fundamental studies common bacterium would be equivalent to planting a ticking of the biochemistry of nucleic acids with particular regard to cancer time bomb in humans who might subsequently become recombinant DNA. His research man of the Department of Biochemistry there from 1969 to included tuberculosis, food preservatives, the engulfment of 1974. He was also director of the Beckman Center for particles and foreign organisms by immune cells (a phenome- Molecular and Genetic Medicine (1985), senior postdoctoral non termed phagocytosis), and the enhanced immune reaction fellow of the National Science Foundation (1961–68), and of an organism to an antigenic target (called anaphylaxis). He was was also responsible for determining the interrelations and dif- elected to the advisory board of the Jane Coffin Childs ferences that helped identify the organisms in a class called Foundation of Medical Research, serving from 1970 to 1980. Other appointments include the chair of the scientific advisory This latter research activity also formed the basis for his committee of the Whitehead Institute (1984–90) and of the most well known accomplishment. In the early years of the national advisory committee of the Human Genome Project twentieth century Bergey became chair of an organizational (1990). He was editor of Biochemistry and Biophysical committee whose mandate was to devise a classification Research Communications (1959–68), and a trustee of scheme for all known bacteria, a scheme that could be used to Rockefeller University (1990–92). He is a member of the identify unknown bacteria based on various criteria (such as international advisory board, Basel Institute of Immunology. Gram stain reaction, shape, appearance of colonies, and on a Berg received many awards in addition to the Nobel variety of biochemical reactions). In 1923, he and four other Prize, among them the American Chemical Society’s Eli Lilly bacteriologists published the first edition of Bergey’s Manual Prize in biochemistry (1959); the V. Roche Institute of Molecular Biology (1972); the Albert The first three editions of the Manual were published by Lasker Basic Medical Research Award (1980); and the the Society of American Bacteriologists (now called the National Medal of Science (1983). During the preparation American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a foreign mem- of the fourth edition in 1934 it became apparent that the finan- ber of the Japanese Biochemistry Society and the Académie cial constraints of the Society were making publication of the des Sciences, France. Subsequently, it was agreed by the Society and Bergey that he would assume all rights, title and interest See also Asilomar conferences; Bacteriophage and bacterio- in the Manual. In turn, an educational trust was created to phage typing; Immunodeficiency disease syndromes; oversee and fund the publication of future editions of the Immunogenetics Manual. From the first edition to the present day, the Bergey’s manual has continued to be updated and new revisions pub- lished every few years. In addition to the Manual, Bergey pub- Bergey, David HendricksBERGEY, DAVID HENDRICKS (1860-1937) lished the Handbook of Practical Hygiene in 1899 and The American bacteriologist Principles of Hygiene in 1901. He See also History of public health was the primary author of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, which has been a fundamentally important ref- erence book for the identification and classification of bacte- ria since its publication in 1923. Bergey was born in the state of Pennsylvania where he (1803-1889) Berkeley, Reverend M. In his early years, Bergey was a British cleric and fungal researcher and classifier schoolteacher he taught in schools of Montgomery Country. An ordained minister, he is best known for his contributions to degrees. He compiled a number of In 1893 he became a faculty member at his alma mater.

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