By U. Benito. Assumption College.
The tremors are complex and unclassifiable purchase 0.25 mcg rocaltrol free shipping medications quiz, have changing characteristics order rocaltrol 0.25mcg on-line medications hyperthyroidism, are clinically inconsistent. Remission of the tremor occurs with psychotherapy Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Disorders Associated with Blepharospasm 261 Disorders Associated with Blepharospasm Blepharospasm is an involuntary, spasmodic closure of the eyelids that is preceded by increasing frequency and force of blinking. It is a form of focal dystonia, and in most cases, no cause can be found (essential blepharospasm). Combined with oromandibular dystonia, this is some- times known as Meige’s syndrome. Tardive dyskinesia and dystonia Parkinson’s disease Wilson’s disease Progressive supranuclear palsy Schwartz–Jampel syndrome Myotonia Tetanus Tetany Ocular disorders (anterior chamber disease) Midbrain disease (infarction or demyelination) Encephalitis Reflex blepharospasm Functional (hysterical) Hemifacial spasm Habit spasms Ticks (e. Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Neurological Disorders of Stance and Gait 263 Neurological Disorders of Stance and Gait Supratentorial lesions White matter disease – White matter dis- Normal histology, but vascular or ischemic disease has ease in the elderly been present in cases with pronounced changes on MRI or CT – Leuko- Familial disorder of white matter disease may manifest encephalopathies itself as impaired gait; e. The lesions are clustered in the superior portion of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus and the suprathalamic white matter – Capsular and basal Small capsular lesions involving the most lateral por- ganglia lesions tion of the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus, and multiple bilateral lacunae in the basal ganglia, can be attended by gait impairment Normotensive hydro- Significant dilatation of the lateral, third, and fourth cephalus ventricles and blunting of the callosocaudal angle causing spastic gait ataxia and urinary disturbances. Fibers destined for the leg region course in the poste- rior limb of the internal capsule and then ascend in the more medial portion of the corona radiata, near the wall of the lateral ventricle Bilateral subdural Unilateral chronic subdural hematomas cause a mild hematomas hemiparesis, speech and language disorders, and apraxia. Bilateral lesions present with gait failure, par- ticularly in elderly individuals Infratentorial lesions Pontomesencephalic The pedunculopontine region plays an important role gait failure in motor behavior. Loss of neurons in the area causes an acute onset of inability to walk, without hemipare- sis or sensory loss and lack of cadence or gait rhyth- micity. The gait deficit resembles the gait failure ex- perienced by many elderly individuals without a clear anatomical correlate Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Most often, patients with cerebellar lesions tend to fall to the side of the lesion Myelopathy The initial manifestation of a myelopathy is often gait or balance impairment Cervical spondylosis Advanced disease may lead to tetraparesis with a spastic–ataxic gait, and may be associated with radic- ular findings, such as pain and reflex changes Multiple sclerosis Gait or balance impairment and sensory changes may be the only manifestations of MS involving the spinal cord or, rarely, some of the higher levels of neuraxis AIDS:acquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome;CT:computedtomography;MRI:magneticres- onance imaging; MS: multiple sclerosis. Types of Stance and Gait Watching the patient stand and walk is the single most important part of the entire neurological assessment and examination. Developmental gaits Neonatal automatic or When the infant is held upright and its feet touch the reflex stepping bed surface, it reflexly lifts its legs alternately and steps Infantile cruising The infant makes steps when steadied by a parent, or when holding on to a chair Toddler’s gait Broad-based, short, jerky, irregular steps, a semiflexed posture of the arms, and frequent falls Child’s mature gait Narrow-based, heel–toe stride, reciprocal swinging of the arms Neuromuscular gaits Clubfoot gait The gait depends on which of a variety of valgus– varus deformities exists In-toed or pigeon-toed When there is tibial torsion gait Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Types of Stance and Gait 265 Lordotic waddling gait In muscular dystrophy and polymyositis, these patients find it difficult to get up onto, or down from, the examining table, or difficult to stand up from a sit- ting or reclining position Toe-drop or foot-drop Because of paralysis of foot dorsiflexion, patients are gait unable to clear the floor, and consequently jerk the knee high, flipping the foot up into dorsiflexion, and characteristically slapping the foot down again – Unilateral foot drop This suggests a mechanical or compressive neu- ropathy of the common peroneal nerve or L5 root – Bilateral foot drop, Due to a symmetrical distal neuropathy of the toxic, or steppage gait metabolic, or familial type, as in alcoholic neuropathy or Charcot–Marie–Tooth progressive peroneal atrophy Heel-drop gait Due to paralysis of the tibial nerve, patients are unable to plantarflex the foot, although dorsiflexion is possible Flail-foot gait Due to complete sciatic palsy, patients are unable to either dorsiflex or plantarflex the foot Toe-walking gait Because of tight heel cords, the child has a limited dorsiflexion of the foot to about 90! This type of gait is seen in Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy, in spastic diplegia, and in autistic or other retarded children Sensory gaits Painful sole or hyper- When patients set the foot down, they put as little esthetic gait weight on it as possible and raise it as soon as possible, hunching the shoulders – Unilateral In Morton’s metatarsalgia, a painful neuroma of an in- terdigital nerve, or gout – Bilateral In painful distal neuropathies of toxic, metabolic or al- coholic in origin Radicular pain gait or Compression of the L5 root from a herniated disk antalgic gait causing extreme pain radiating into the big toe, ag- gravated by coughing, sneezing, or straight leg rais- ing. The back is lordotic, and when patients walk they do not put any weight on the painful leg and take stiff, slow, short strides, with no heel strike. The trunk tilts slightly to the side opposite the pain Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. A pathognomonic gait seen often in autistic and other retarded children, who develop repetitive, self-stimu- lating mannerisms resembling a variety of flipping- hand gaits Tabetic or dorsal Resembles a double foot drop. Seen in patients with column or sensory tabes dorsalis, in whom a syphilitic infection causes ataxic gait degeneration of the dorsal columns of the spinal cords. Patients lift the knees high and slap the feet down, placing them irregularly due to sensory ataxia. When standing, they need to use visual cues to avoid swaying and falling over Blind person’s gait The slow, deliberate, and searching steps of a blind person are characteristic, and should not confuse an experienced examiner Cerebellar gaits Unilateral cerebellar A unilateral cerebellar lesion, most likely caused by gait neoplasm, infarct, or demyelinating disease, causes ipsilateral cerebellar signs, with the patient presenting dystaxia of volitional movements (veering or falling in one direction) and of volitionally maintained postures, producing a reeling gait Bilateral cerebellar gait Bilateral cerebellar signs imply a toxic, metabolic or fa- miliar disorder. Dystaxia of the legs and gait, with little or no dystaxia of the arms, and no dysarthria or nys- tagmus, suggests a rostral vermis syndrome, most commonly secondary to alcoholism. Truncal ataxia alone implies a flocculonodular lobe or caudal vermian lesion, often a fourth ventricular tumor Spastic gaits Hemiplegic gait Patients circumduct the affected leg, dragging the toe and placing the ball down without a heel strike, with the ipsilateral arm held in partial flexion or, less often, flaccidly at the side Spastic gaits Patients walk with stiff legs, not clearing the floor with either foot, giving the appearance of wading through water because they have to work against the spastic opposition of their own muscles, as if walking in thick, sticky mud; the knees tend to rub together in a scis- soring action Pure spastic or para- A pure spastic paraplegic gait without sensory deficits, plegic gait developing after birth, implies a corticospinal tract disorder, as in familial spastic paraplegia Tsementzis, Differential Diagnosis in Neurology and Neurosurgery © 2000 Thieme All rights reserved. Types of Stance and Gait 267 Spastic diplegic gait Patients affected by diplegic cerebral palsy have small and short legs in contrast to normally developed chest, shoulders, and arms. In spastic diplegia, there is severe spasticity in the legs, minimal spasticity in the arms, and little or no deficit in speaking or swallowing; whereas in double hemiplegia, there is pseudobulbar palsy and more arm weakness than leg weakness Spastic–ataxic gait If, in addition to spasticity, the disease impairs the dorsal columns or cerebellum, as in spinocerebellar degeneration or multiple sclerosis, patients have a wider-based, unsteady gait and take irregular steps Basal ganglia gaits Marche à petits pas Elderly patients with small vessel disease due to arte- (gait with little steps) riosclerosis, appearing as multiple lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia, develop a characteristic gait with shuffling, short steps, and are unable to lift the feet from the ground. Progress in walking ceases if the patient tries to speak (they are unable to walk and talk or chew gum at the same time) Parkinsonian gait Patients with degeneration of the substantia nigra or neuroleptic medication toxicity rise and walk slowly with short steps, lack any arm swing, turn en bloc like a statue rotating on a pedestal, and have a tremor when at rest, which disappears during intentional movement Festinating gait When patients are pushed after prior warning, they move forward or backward with tiny steps of increas- ing speed and decreasing length, as if chasing the center of gravity, and they may fall over Choreiform gait When patients with Huntington’s or Sydenham’s chorea walk, the play of finger and arm movements increases, or may even appear clearly for the first time.
In older patients purchase 0.25 mcg rocaltrol medications similar to abilify, a CHF buy rocaltrol 0.25 mcg without a prescription medications on nclex rn, yet diuretics will not improve nocturia caused by number of chronic conditions may contribute to the com- age-related temporal shifts in ﬂuid elimination that are plaint of DOE. In addition to the disorders already a result of loss of the circadian rhythm of antidiure- noted, kyphosis, intrinsic lung disease, deconditioning, Table 1. Secondary prevention: effects of age on lipid lowering in patients with congestive heart disease (CHD). All studies were MC, PC, DB, RCTs, and examined CHD death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) as outcomes in the treatment of hyper- cholesterolemia. Evidence-Based Geriatrics 9 valvular heart disease, left ventricular dysfunction, tach- Treatment Differences yarrhythmias, and mild anemia may all exacerbate the Patient adherence, and consequently therapeutic effect, patient’s symptoms. Only some of these can be reversed, can be markedly affected by the social and economic and treatment of any one ameliorates only some of the differences discussed in Chapters 6 and 82. In general, dyspnea, even if the laboratory or radiology results for people who adhere to placebo in a study do better than that condition normalize. The ability of older adults to adhere to ther- Patient Differences apeutic regimens, including preparations for procedures, can be compromised by motivation, ﬁnances, social iso- Older adults are more pathophysiologically heteroge- lation, impaired ADLs (activities of daily living), IADLs neous than people at other stages of life as a result of the (instrumental activities of daily living), and cognition, all effects of aging itself, disease, lifestyle, and genetics. The of which usually are more common in study nonpartici- concept of applying study results to "older adults" is actu- pants than participants. For other types of interventions, ally misleading, as there appear to be multiple subsets including test interpretation, provider and site experience with signiﬁcantly different prognostic trajectories: suc- and expertise are key to obtaining results comparable to cessful agers, usual agers, chronically ill, dementing, or 33–35 those obtained in a clinical trial. Even within each of these groups, the 22–28 Study interventions may be simple, such as a trial of a life expectancy trajectory has been shown to differ. The managing urinary incontinence or delirium, and process impact of comorbid illness on life expectancy can negate variables, such as the personnel, administrative structure, the beneﬁt of treating certain conditions including early and methods for changing staff behavior. When a prostate cancer, where no outcome difference is seen 29 complex intervention is effective, it is often difﬁcult to between treatment and watchful waiting over 10 years, replicate and often unclear which components are criti- and high cholesterol, where beneﬁts are initially seen 36,37 30 cal to success and therefore required for replication. Other Key components might be staff with speciﬁc personality comorbidities allow parsimonious treatment to occur, traits or a culture that is supportive of change, both of resulting in an intervention having even greater beneﬁt which are more difﬁcult to replicate than the administra- than usual: examples include anticoagulation in a person tion of a medication. Comorbidities can also reduce the effect Patient–Treatment Interactions of treatment by producing a bad outcome through mechanisms not affected by the treatment. For example, Older adults experience a variety of age-related changes cataract removal in older adults may not improve vision in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (see substantially if the patient has underlying macular degen- Chapter 7), resulting in a need to modify drug dosing eration or diabetic retinopathy, which is less likely to regimens from those used in a study. With aging, thermoregulation and exclusion criteria and the relatively small numbers becomes more difﬁcult, the immune system is not as of subjects tested. For example, treatment of atrial responsive, and the maximal heart rate is not as high (see ﬁbrillation with rate control agents such as beta-blockers Chapter 3). This loss of physiologic ﬂexibility and plas- is more likely to result in symptomatic bradycardia 38 ticity means that any intervention might have a more requiring a pacemaker in older adults because it is deranging inﬂuence than expected. For example, people more often a manifestation of sick sinus syndrome in with structurally abnormal brains due to either dementia this population. Treatment responsiveness may also vary or stroke are more likely to develop delirium from a with age, as demonstrated by the decreased immune small dose of an anticholinergic drug than age-matched response and efﬁcacy of the inﬂuenza vaccine in nursing 31,32 39 people without these conditions. Has the treatment been shown to be superior • Head-to-head trial against current standard treatment showing to other accepted treatments in its effect on Better efﬁcacy outcomes that matter to patients? What is the patient’s likelihood of a bad • Estimation of the patient’s life expectancy22,25–28 outcome if not treated? What is the effectiveness of the treatment Hierarchy of evidence for older adults? Is there • Those identiﬁed in the studies (how large were the studies, who was excluded? Geriatric Dosage Handbook: Including Monitoring, Clinical Recommendations, and OBRA Guidelines 2002–2003, 6th ed. How important does the patient view Patient discussion; family and/or caregivers if patient unable to discuss avoiding the disorder’s bad outcome compared to the risk of treatment? An example of this is thrombolysis for acute types of adverse events, such as delirium or falls, which myocardial infarction (MI), where RCTs suggest equal commonly occur in older but not younger adults. This beneﬁt up to the age of 75 but provide no data on persons concern is particularly true for chronically ill or frail older 75 or older.
Consider the problem of a person presenting with apparent anguish from a headache order rocaltrol 0.25mcg amex medicine under tongue. Is the problem best described as a migraine generic 0.25 mcg rocaltrol overnight delivery medicine woman cast, drug addiction, hypertension, or addiction in the setting of migraine? How sure are we that there is not also a stroke, along with migraine and addiction? How appropriate is searching for obscured and unappreciated aspects of this particular problem? Which potentially hidden factors should be sought out and considered in its setting? The "tertiary quality" of the situation as initially presented is constituted by outcries, grimaces, tears, head holding, perhaps anger and impatience or appeals for pity in addition to background features such as the time of day and how busy it is in the clinic. This "quality" can be accepted at face value or altered by diagnostic investigation, i. Will the nurse who thought she saw the patient last week with a toothache seriously consider her fleeting impression that he then gave a different name? If the patient has an alias, will we still bother to find out that his twin died suddenly of a stroke at age 35? The results of this inquiry will cause the "tertiary quality" of the situation to evolve, and perhaps will even transform it. DEWEY’S VIEW OF SITUATIONS, PROBLEMS, MEANS AND ENDS101 As a working impression of the unsettled situation develops, various possible actions take shape in our imaginations. We then engage in what Dewey called a "dramatic rehearsal," depicting to ourselves and sometimes to one another the probable consequences of acting. The best depiction of consequences and outcomes for various acts depends of course on the knowledge, the imagination and the experience of those who deliberate. Experience, foresight and sensitivity afford moral and tactical advantage, and time for reflection can be critical as well, to help us envision a rich population of possible consequences from engagement. Ignorance, limited vision, lack of information, haste and self-deception are often punished. Unhappily, the punishment does not fall fairly on decision-makers perpetrating ill-considered acts, but on all those who suffer from them. For this reason, Dewey does not accept an individualized, narrow view of expediency as a valid measure for the success of action. There is no special discount of responsibility for "downstream" effects and "externalities. Envisioning consequences rather than examining motives is most important for Dewey’s moral theory, but among the consequences of action are effects on the actor which may influence future capacities. As a naturalist, he seeks to work on and with human inclinations, developing and engaging them for beneficial purposes. His view contrasts sharply with Kant, who thought that will could and in fact should control action based on rational considerations alone and that action based on inclination alone could not be morally meritorious. We need to be cultivating inclination according to Dewey, not counting on emotionally unsupported "will. To state explicitly what is implicit in Dewey’s moral work, virtuous characters and virtuous actions are mutually reinforcing, and can either be seen as means or ends. Some tasks involve the character of the performer and are colored by it, whereas others can be accomplished by any character who learns a technique. Attending 102 CHAPTER 4 a terminal patient, for example, is one of the former whereas deciding whether a biopsy slide indicates malignant melanoma is one of the latter. I have been contending throughout this work that clinical judgment often properly involves experience and breadth of spirit, which is why robots will never be more than adjuncts to physicians. Dewey, in Democracy and Education refers to four "traits of individual method" which are essential for teachers. The flexibility, adaptation, responsiveness to context and ability to innovate required for teachers in many unsettled situations is also needed in commonly unsettled medical settings. When we doctors exercise poor judgment, or run from responsibility by pretending that judgment is not our job, we cannot simply be taught techniques which will obviate our incapacity.
Although such forces are treated as internal forces in the overall motion of the entire body order rocaltrol 0.25 mcg with mastercard medicine klimt, they need to be considered as external forces when the movement of an indi- vidual body segment is studied buy cheap rocaltrol 0.25mcg line medications vertigo. Some of the external forces acting on an object (part of an object) may be known in both in direction and magnitude. When the friction between ob- jects can be neglected, direction of contact force becomes perpendicular to the surface of contact. Frictional force is always in the direction that opposes relative sliding on the surface of contact. As in the case of bicy- cling, the propulsive force is in the direction of motion. In speed skat- ing, the propulsive force lies in a plane that is at right angles to the glid- ing direction. Competitive dives in swimming involve several turns before the diver enters the water with as little splash as possible. In one such dive, the diver began the dive with hands at his sides and at the end of the board with his back toward the water. He quickly adopted the layout position where his arms extended in the line of the body, and then assumed the tuck position in which the thighs and the lower legs are pulled in toward the trunk (Fig. Planar diving in which the diver changes shape from fully ex- tended (a) to tucked configuration (d) through intermediate shapes (b) and (c). The moment of inertia Ic of the athlete in the layout position was 134 lb-in-s2 and in the tuck position 34 lb-in-s2. Solution: Once the swimmer is airborne the only force acting on him is the gravitational force passing through his center of mass, and as there is no external moment acting on him while he is airborne, his angular mo- mentum with respect to his center of mass must be constant: Hc 5 Ic v e 3 5 134 lb-in-s2 322p (s21) e 3 5 34 lb-in-s2 3 v e 3 v 5224. Once the an- gular momentum is set, then it remains constant until the diver encoun- ters the water. Note that during the fraction of a second when the swim- mer switches from the layout position to the tucked position, his body is changing shape and therefore cannot be idealized as a rigid body. In that brief time period, Hc 5 Ic v e will not hold, because it was derived un- 3 der the assumption that all the various segments of the body rotated with the same angular velocity. This is clearly not the case when the thighs and lower legs are moving toward the trunk as the diver assumes the tuck position. The feet of a gymnast of mass 2m and height 2L are attached to two rings as shown in Fig. The gymnast is let go from rest in the horizontal position as indicated in the figure. To as- sess the loads carried by her abdominal and back muscles during the swing, let us model the gymnast with two rods (OA and AB) connected by a hinge at point A. The point O represents the feet, and we assume it to be stationary in the reference frame E. When these two rods let go from rest in the horizontal configuration, will they begin to rotate as one solid body? Newton’s third law dictates that the resultant force AB exerts on OA must be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction of the force OA exerts on AB. We use the equations of motion for the cen- ter of mass of each rod (points D and E in Fig. Bodies in Planar Motion (a) e2 L/2 L/2 e1 O A B (b) F O D A R 1 1 F mg R 2 2 (c) A E B R1 R2 mg FIGURE 4. A gymnast rotating downward from a straight horizontal config- uration while the positioning of the feet remains constant (a). First, let us express the accelerations of points D and E in terms of the angular accelerations of rods OA and AB. Fur- thermore, the rods under consideration are released from rest, and hence their angular velocities are zero. Let us use the same equation to determine the acceleration of E: aE 5 aA 1 a e 3 (L/2) e 2 3 1 5 a1 L e2 1 a2 e3 3 (L/2) e1 5 [a1 L 1 a2 (L/2)] e2 in which a2 e3 is the angular acceleration of rod AB. These equations can be written in the e1 direction as follows: For OA: F1 1 R1 5 m (0) ⇒ F1 52R1 For AB: 2R1 5 m (0) ⇒ R1 5 0 ⇒ R1 52F1 5 0 Thus, the horizontal reaction forces acting on joints O and A are equal to zero. The equations of motion for the rods OA and AB in the e2 direction are F2 1 R2 2 mg 5 m a1 (L/2) (4. First, the conser- vation of angular momentum of bar OA about the fixed point O: 2mg(L/2) 1 R L 5 (mL2/3) a (4.