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Would you be prepared to withdraw and ruin all your hard work for the sake of your informants? Also generic 800 mg nootropil medicine uses, there are many personal considerations and dilemmas which you need to think about before undertaking participant obser- vation purchase nootropil 800 mg line treatment 5th metatarsal base fracture, as illustrated below: 104 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS PERSONAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN ENTERING THE FIELD Some people will not accept you. Are you prepared to spend many months studying others and not indulging in talk about yourself? Some researchers overcome this problem by making sure that they have someone outside the community who they can talk to if they need to. If you’re going to come across people with very different social and political beliefs, can you remain neutral and keep your opinions to yourself? Some researchers may try arguing their point in the hope that they will get more information and it will deepen their understand- ing. Are you prepared for the emergence of as yet uncon- scious emotional factors? You may find out things about yourself which you do not like, especially in terms of your own prejudices. Are you prepared to be used as a scapegoat if things go wrong within the community under study? Often it is easier for the community to blame an outsider and HOW TO CARRY OUT PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION/ 105 many researchers are happy to go along with this be- cause they know they will be leaving the community at some point. Can you handle the feelings of guilt which may arise as a result of the roles you’ve got to play? Some researchers would argue that you should not do this because it is being dishonest. The le- vel to which you are prepared to do this has to be your own choice. COLLECTING AND ANALYSING INFORMATION At the beginning of a participant observation study it is hard to understand what everything means. At first some- thing may appear very significant, but later it might be- come a minor detail. However, you will not know this until you have started to analyse what is going on. You need to have a good memory as in many situations it is not possible to take notes at the time. You need to have a notepad with you at all times so that you can write down your thoughts as soon as possible after the encounter. However, in the beginning stages of a participant observation study, it is better to seek information by not asking questions. In- 106 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS stead, you will find that people come to you and ask ques- tions. This in itself is valuable information and can tell you a lot about those people, so all questions should be noted and analysed. Or they might be methodological notes concerning your role, your influence on the encounter, your relation- ship with the informants, sampling procedures and so on. As time moves on your notes will be to do with a prelimin- ary analysis and the forming of hypotheses which you can go on to check out with your informants. Also, as your research progresses you will start to code and classify your notes (see Chapter 11). Taking notes is a very personal process and you need to find a method which will suit you. Many researchers de- velop their own form of shorthand, but if you do this keep it simple because, if your contact is over a long period of time, you may not understand the shorthand you used at the beginning. Most researchers keep a day-to-day diary in addition to all the other field notes. You will also need to keep all transcripts of interviews, photographs, maps, tapes, video recordings, diagrams and plans.

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Rhodococcus equi order nootropil 800mg amex medicine 2020, which inhabits soil discount nootropil 800mg free shipping treatment 4 pink eye, of strategies to combat chronic infections, such as the is an important pathogen of young horses. Another human Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections that occur, and can pathogen is It is also a normal resident on skin surfaces, and ultimately kill those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. For these and other pioneering contributions to biofilm research, Costerton has received many awards. These include See also Gram staining the Sir Frederick Haultain Prize for outstanding achievement in the physical sciences (1986), the Isaak Walton Killam Memorial Prize for Scientific Achievement in Canada (1990), CCosterton, John WilliamOSTERTON, JOHN WILLIAM (1934- ) and a Fellowship in the American Association for the Canadian microbiologist Advancement of Science (1997). William (Bill) Costerton is a Canadian microbiologist who is actively involved internationally in promoting the multi- has pioneered the recognition of bacterial biofilms as the dom- disciplinary structure of the Center’s research and education inant mode of growth of bacteria, and who first demonstrated curriculum. See also Antibiotic resistance, tests for; Bacterial adaptation; Costerton was born in Vernon, British Columbia. CCoulter counterOULTER COUNTER Robert Murray at the University of Western Ontario in London, A Coulter counter is a device that is used to measure the num- Ontario, where he received a Ph. Following post- ber of cells in a certain volume of a sample suspension. The doctoral training at Cambridge University, Costerton moved to counter achieves this enumeration by monitoring the decrease MacDonald College of McGill University, in the Canadian in electrical conductivity that occurs when the cells pass province of Quebec, where he became first a Professional through a small opening in the device. While originally devel- Associate in 1966 then an Assistant Professor in 1968. In 1970 oped for use with blood cells, the Coulter counter has found he moved to the University of Calgary as an Associate great use in a diverse number of disciplines, including micro- Professor. From 1985 to 1992, he held positions at Calgary as the AOS- biology, where it is used to determine the total number of bac- TRA Research Professor followed by the National Sciences teria in samples. Because the device operates on the physical blockage of These two appointments freed him from teaching to concen- electrical conductivity by particles in a sample, the Coulter trate on his burgeoning research into bacterial biofilms. Research on biofilms has occupied Costerton since his An indication of the total number of bacteria (alive, dormant, move to Calgary. The number of living bacteria can, the existence of biofilms and when on to show that biofilms however, usually be easily determined using another volume are the dominant mode of growth for bacteria. Coulter conceived and constructed the first counter in the Research over a decade demonstrated the importance of this basement of his home in Chicago in the early 1950s. Then as exopolysaccharide in enabling the bacteria to survive doses of now, the device relies on a vacuum pump that draws a solution antibacterial agents, including antibiotics that readily killed or suspension through an electrically charged tube that has a bacteria grown in conventional lab cultures. As particles pass through the hole was so convincing that an initially skeptical scientific com- the electrical field is interrupted. The pattern of the interrup- munity became convinced of the importance and widespread tion can be related to the number of particles and even to par- nature of biofilms. There is a predilection towards acquiring the tend to aggregate together in a suspension. This may be clump of bacteria passing through the orifice of the counter because of a closer contact with animals such as cats by this age could be counted as a single bacterium. This would produce an group, or because of lack of administration of smallpox vaccine. Treatment for cowpox tends to be ensuring that the The Coulter counter has been used for many applica- patient is as comfortable as possible while waiting for the tions, both biological and nonbiological. Sometimes, a physician may wish device was reconfigured to incorporate a laser beam. This to drain the pus from the skin sores to prevent the spread of the allowed the use of fluorescent labeled monoclonal antibodies infection further over the surface of the skin. The use of this treatment needs to be evaluated carefully, as there See also Bacterial growth and division; Laboratory techniques can be side effects such as kidney damage. Antibodies to the in microbiology vaccinia virus may also be injected into a patient, as these antibodies also confer protection against cowpox. CowpoxCOWPOX See also Vaccination; Virology; Zoonoses Cowpox refers to a disease that is caused by the cowpox or catpox virus. The virus is a member of the orthopoxvirus fam- COXIELLA BURNETII • see Q FEVER ily. Other viruses in this family include the smallpox and vac- cinia viruses.

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Candy said she had “a natural delivery because they had no idea how I was going to react under anesthesia trusted nootropil 800mg treatment high blood pressure,” but then for seven years she took medications with significant side effects buy discount nootropil 800 mg treatment yersinia pestis. She and her husband decided not to have other children, worried that it might worsen her disease. I wasn’t able to go bike riding with him or skating—my husband did that. Instead of working as she would have done, she stayed home with her boy. Admittedly, she couldn’t carry him, so when he was fourteen months old,“he could climb up and down the stairs because he had to. One woman feels badly that she cannot pick up and carry a child tugging at her sleeve. Another woman spends hours playing cards and board games with her children in lieu of trips to the playground. Bonnie Winfield was six when her thirty-year-old father, a third-generation dairy farmer, developed polio from a rare vaccine reaction. My parents didn’t really sit my brothers and me down—we were all under eight—and try to explain what is going on with Dad. We just knew, all of sudden, we had this stuff in the house, from the portable commode to shower curtains on bathroom doors because Dad’s wheelchair couldn’t get through with the door there. We had a long hallway that connected our bedrooms, and my dad used to take his walker and practice walking going up and down. You knew Dad’s legs didn’t work, and you knew he was trying to get them to work again. Us kids had to go out and round up the cows, and we learned to milk, and my mom and my grandmother milked. When people would hold open doors for Dad, we kids would just walk through. But that was what he wanted because he didn’t want to be treated any differently than anybody else. In contrast to Bonnie, many children have grown and left home by the time their parents develop mobility problems. So the long-standing rela- tionships between parents and children shape the impact of mobility diffi- culties. Walking per se isn’t the issue, although it may catalyze changes in the dynamics of relationships. One woman with severe back pain lives with her daughter, and she’s losing patience. It’s the same as liv- ing alone except sometimes I have someone to talk to. We talk about a range of topics that obviously you don’t talk to kids about. My parents are divorced, so he talks to me a lot about what he’s thinking inside. He’s slowly starting to realize that his body just can’t take some things anymore.... So mostly I’m the listener, someone he can vent his concerns to: “What happens if I can’t walk again? Whether they will accept their children’s help is a slightly differ- ent question. I gotta sit down and do most of the preparations or get the girls to do it. No sooner do they finish raising their children than their ailing par- 102 / At Home—with Family and Friends ents move in for care” (Roszak 1998, 93). Some women spend more years caring for their parents than for their children. Daughters assist with cooking, household chores, even personal care, such as bathing and dressing. As in Mattie Harris’s family, older daughters sometimes help care for younger siblings. Daugh- ters also take parents shopping, to doctor’s appointments, to visit friends, and to church. Sons typically perform activities outside the home, picking up groceries, and doing other errands.

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He was the prime mover in forming the of the end discount nootropil 800 mg with visa medicine park lodging, during a brief return of consciousness Liverpool Orthopedic Circle in 1944 cheap 800 mg nootropil amex treatment 2 go. The informal and and momentary recapture of the old sparkle, he frank discussion of cases which follows each monthly instructed his son how to secure and pack dinner of the circle has proved invaluable to its a Scotch salmon to fly back to his chief in members, not only in their work but in forming the America with whom he was working on a surgi- foundations of much closer personal friendships than cal fellowship. McFarland’s con- tributions to the discussions were typical of him, direct This tenacity and indomitable courage was and often pungent, and scorning all pretence and epitomized in his presidential address to the humbug. With McFarland at the head, the postgraduate Philomathic Society on “The Will to Live,” when school flourished. At long illness, beginning while lecturing to old stu- an early meeting, after two issues of the first dents in Australia, and ending so wearily that he British volume had been expensively published, was diffident in welcoming visitors lest he might we reviewed the balance sheet with dismayed not still seem steel blue and blade straight. With anxiety, and the board was informed that after gentle love, and no less firm endurance, he was months of endeavor, post-war controls had not yet sustained and comforted by his wife Ethel. He left been surmounted and there was no Board of Trade behind his wife and two sons John and Andrew. With a Bryan’s concluding words in his Philomathic chuckle McFarland said “ it seems to me that in address were: pursuing an illegal venture we face financial ruin—but we will go on. This feeling, the many councils and associations of which if unhindered by anxious thought, will grow in he became president, including the Liverpool strength; and when the troubled times are over we shall Medical Institution, University Club, Merseyside be just that little bit more balanced in judgment, that branch of the British Medical Association and little bit more determined in character, and that little bit Liverpool Philomathic Society. Of these little bits is built up our the Robert Jones Dining Club, which meets each national character which renders unconquerable our year after the eponymous lecture at the Royal land and invincible our soul. College of Surgeons of England—an oration that he himself gave brilliantly, as he did also the first McMurray Memorial Lecture in Liverpool. He prepared assiduously, for example taking coach- ing lessons in French to improve his continental duties, culminating in the presidency of the Société Internationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Traumatologie. We chaffed him that his French was spoken with a strong Liverpool accent; but we loved him the more. He would leave home at three o’clock in the morning to arrive in Anglesey before dawn for wild-fowl shooting, and a superb shot he was. It was not until after the age of 40 that he became an enthusiastic fish- erman, but so thorough was the preparation and practice that he could equal the skill of any High- land ghillie at Cape Wrath. Within a day or two 225 Who’s Who in Orthopedics suade the giants of industry and commerce to con- tribute to the rebuilding and upkeep of the College. Archie, as he was affectionately known to all his friends, was a great plastic surgeon and teacher. But he was also the most likeable of men, with an infinite capacity for enjoying life in the company of every stratum of society. Honors were given to him in abundance but, though accepted with obvious delight, they never altered his delightful character. He will be greatly missed by his many friends and colleagues all over the world—and not least by his patients, especially the badly burnt Royal Air Force boys of the Second World War, who banded together to form the Guinea Pig Club, which met annually at East Grinstead under his presidency. Archibald McIndoe died peacefully in his sleep Archibald Hector McINDOE from a coronary occlusion on April 12, 1960, at the age of 59. Later he came to London and joined his cousin, Sir Harold Gillies, the great pioneer of plastic surgery, who outlived him by a few months. Within a short time he was on the staff of St Bartholomew’s Hospital and his future in London was secure; indeed, for the last 20 years of his life, he was probably the most successful surgeon in any speciality in the metropolis. During the Second World War he was consultant in plastic surgery to the Royal Air Force. The writer became closely associated with him in the problems presented by burns combined with frac- tures, and in the management of patients with extensive skin and bone loss. This work, which George Kenneth McKEE started in Royal Air Force hospitals and at the Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, was 1906–1991 continued at the latter hospital until his death. On his election to the Council of the Royal Ken McKee, a pioneer of joint replacement College of Surgeons of England, he became surgery, was born at Ilford, Essex, the son of a intensely interested in the College, of which he medical practitioner who had migrated from had just ceased to be senior vice president when Northern Ireland at the turn of the century. There was little doubt that he would was educated at Chigwell School and St. He Zealander to hold the highest order in British then came under the influence of Elmslie, Higgs surgery.

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