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Because touch is also a form of communication buy albenza 400 mg without a prescription medications varicose veins, sensi- Neuromuscular massage is a form of deep massage tive touch can convey a sense of caring—an essential el- that is applied to individual muscles order albenza 400 mg with visa symptoms bladder infection. It is used primarily ement in the therapeutic relationship—to the person re- to release trigger points (intense knots of muscle tension ceiving massage. Trigger one technique or method in their work and sometimes point massage and myotherapy are similar forms. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1299 Acupressure applies finger or thumb pressure to spe- Precautions cific points located on the acupuncture meridians (chan- Massage is comparatively safe; however it is gener- nels of energy flow identified in Asian concepts of anato- ally contraindicated, i. In the United States, the aver- other treatment, infectious diseases, contagious skin con- age range is from $35-60 for a one hour session. Frequency of massage ses- Massage should not be used locally on affected areas sions can vary widely. In some cases, precautions should be taken before The first appointment generally begins with infor- using massage for the following conditions: pregnancy, mation gathering, such as the reason for getting massage high fevers, osteoporosis, diabetes, recent postoperative therapy, physical condition and medical history, and cases in which pain and muscular splinting (i. Undressing takes place in private, hension, and mental conditions that may impair commu- and a sheet or towel is provided for draping. In such cases, massage may or sage therapist will undrape only the part of the body may not be appropriate. The massage therapist may use an oil or cream, For example, if someone has osteoporosis, the concern is which will be absorbed into the skin in a short time. If one has a health condition and has any To receive the most benefit from a massage, general- hesitation about whether massage therapy would be ap- ly the person being massaged should give the therapist propriate, a physician should be consulted. Sometimes Insurance coverage for massage therapy varies people are concerned that massage may leave them too re- widely. There tends to be greater coverage in states that laxed or too mentally unfocused. Before 1939, more than 600 research studies on massage appeared in the main journals of medicine in Preparations English. Generally, one should be clean and should Massage therapy research picked up again in the not eat just before a massage. One should not be under 1980s, as the growing popularity of massage paralleled the influence of alcohol or non-medicinal drugs. Mas- the growing interest in complementary and alternative sage therapists generally work by appointment and usu- medicine. Well designed studies have documented the ally will provide information about how to prepare for an benefits of massage therapy for the treatment of acute appointment at the time of making the appointment. A study of chronic fatigue syndrome py gain more weight and have shorter hospital stays than subjects found that a group receiving massage therapy infants who are not massaged. A study of 40 low-birth- had lower depression, emotional distress, and somatic weight babies found that the 20 massaged babies had a symptom scores, more hours of sleep, and lower epi- 47% greater weight gain per day and stayed in the hospi- nephrine and cortisol levels than a control group. Cocaine-exposed, preterm in- fants given massage three times daily for a 10 day period The generally accepted standard for training is a showed significant improvement. Training should in- massaged infants had fewer postnatal complications and clude anatomy, physiology, pathology, massage theory exhibited fewer stress behaviors during the 10 day peri- and technique, and supervised practice. Most massage od, had a 28% greater daily weight gain, and demonstrat- therapists also take additional courses and workshops ed more mature motor behaviors. In the United States, massage therapists are current- A study comparing 52 hospitalized depressed and ad- ly licensed by 29 states, the District of Columbia, and a justment disorder children and adolescents with a control number of localities. Most states require 500 or more group that viewed relaxation videotapes, found massage classroom hours of training from a recognized training therapy subjects were less depressed and anxious, and had program and passing an examination. A national certification program was inaugurated in Another study showed massage therapy produced June 1992 by the National Certification Board for Thera- relaxation in 18 elderly subjects, demonstrated in mea- peutic Massage and Bodywork (NCBTMB). The sures such as decreased blood pressure and heart rate and NCBTMB program is accredited by the National Com- increased skin temperature. Those cer- jects with traumatically induced spinal pain led to signif- tified can use the title Nationally Certified in Therapeutic icant improvements in acute and chronic pain and in- Massage and Bodywork (NCTMB). Department of Education, currently rally control pain by stimulating the brain to produce en- recognizes about 70 training programs. Fibromyalgia is an example of a condition Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technolo- that may be favorably affected by this effect. A pilot study of five subjects with symptoms of ten- sion and anxiety found a significant response to massage Resources therapy in one or more psycho-physiological parameters of heart rate, frontalis and forearm extensor electromyo- BOOKS grams (EMGs) and skin resistance, which demonstrate Beck, Mark F. Massage Therapy Career Guide for Hands- Lymph drainage massage has been shown to be On Success.

Diagnosis If a person has symptoms of cancer cheap 400 mg albenza mastercard treatment innovations, the doctor will Environment begin with a complete medical history and a thorough High-frequency radiation has been shown to cause physical examination albenza 400 mg overnight delivery treatment lower back pain. Ultra-violet radiation from the sun examined to identify any variations from the normal size, GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS 191 KEY TERMS (CONTINUED) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—A technique Nitrates/nitrites—Chemical compounds found in that employs magnetic fields and radio waves to certain foods and water that, when consumed, may create detailed images of internal body structures increase the risk of gastric cancer. Malignant—A tumor growth that spreads to another Palliative—Treatment done for relief of symptoms part of the body, usually cancerous. Mammogram—A procedure in which both breasts Pancreas—An organ located in the abdomen that are compressed/flattened and exposed to low doses secretes pancreatic juices for digestion and hor- of x rays, in an attempt to visualize the inner breast mones for maintaining blood sugar levels. Medulloblastoma—Tumor of the central nervous Pelvic examination—Physical examination per- system derived from undifferentiated cells of the formed by a physician, often associated with a Pap primitive medullary tube. Metachronous—Occurring at separate time inter- Pernicious anemia—A blood condition with vals. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS)—Inherited syndrome Metastatic cancer—A cancer that has spread to an causing polyps of the digestive tract and spots on organ or tissue from a primary cancer located else- the mouth as well as increased risk of cancer. Polyp—A mass of tissue bulging out from the nor- Multifocal breast cancer—Multiple primary can- mal surface of a mucous membrane. Primary cancer—The first or original cancer site, Mutation—A permanent change in the genetic before any metastasis. Additionally, the niques used to obtain pictures of the inside of the body doctor may order various other tests. In suspected, a special test can be done that measures the this technique, a piece of tissue is surgically removed for amount of certain substances, called tumor markers, in examination under a microscope. These proteins are mation about the cellular nature of the abnormality, the released from some types of cancer cells. Thus, the lev- stage it has reached, the aggressiveness of the cancer, and els of these substances may be abnormal when certain the extent of its spread. However, laboratory tests alone can- obtained by biopsy defines the cause of the abnormality. Since a biopsy provides the most accurate analysis, it is Blood tests are generally more useful in monitoring the considered the gold standard of diagnostic tests for cancer. Other tech- the American Cancer Society recommends an annual 194 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS KEY TERMS (CONTINUED) Prostatectomy—The surgical removal of the Testosterone—Hormone produced in the testicles prostate gland. High-frequency Radiation—High energy rays used in cancer treat- sound waves that cannot be heard by humans are ment to kill or shrink cancer cells. These sound waves produce a pattern of radiation from x-ray machines, cobalt, radium, or echoes that are then used by the computer to create other sources. Rectum—The end portion of the intestine that leads Transvaginal ultrasound—A way to view the ovaries to the anus. Color doppler Semen—A whitish, opaque fluid released at ejacu- imaging measures the amount of blood flow, as lation that contains sperm. Seminal vesicles—The pouches above the prostate Tumor—An abnormal growth of cells. Sore—An open wound or a bruise or lesion on the Ultrasound—An imaging technique that uses sound skin. Whipple procedure—Surgical removal of the pan- creas and surrounding areas including a portion of Stomach—An organ that holds and begins digestion the small intestine, the duodenum. X ray—An image of the body made by the passing Synchronous—Occurring simultaneously. Testicles—Two egg-shaped glands that produce X rays—High energy radiation used in high doses, sperm and sex hormones. Self-examinations for cancers of the breast, The aim of cancer treatment is to remove all or as testes, mouth and skin can also help in detecting tumors. This genetic testing involves looking closely example, if the cancer is very aggressive and a cure is not at certain genes that have been linked to particular can- possible, then the treatment should be aimed at relieving cers. The tests may be uninfor- Cancer treatment can take many different forms and mative and they are useful to a very small number of peo- it is always tailored to the individual patient. Additionally, there are concerns about insurance sion on which type of treatment to use depends on the coverage and employment discrimination for someone type and location of cancer and the extent to which it has who has an increased risk for cancer. The doctor will also consider the tests are reserved only for very specific people.

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