By N. Boss. Ferrum College.
REVIEW QUESTIONS DIRECTIONS: Each of the numbered (B) 50% (D) Bile items or incomplete statements in this (C) 60% 4 doxepin 25mg line anxiety urinary frequency. Which of the following is ONE lettered answer or completion that is of calcium during a 24-hour period cheap doxepin 25 mg without prescription anxiety feels like. What is the major route of calcium involved in formation of 1,25- excretion from the body? As part of a routine physical exam, a (A) Urine (A) Bone patient’s serum electrolyte levels were (B) Sweat (B) Skin measured. Among the measurements, it (C) Feces (C) Kidney was determined that total plasma (D) Bile (D) Liver calcium concentration was 10. A 42-year-old woman develops an What percentage of total plasma phosphate leaves the body is via the autoimmune disease that damages her calcium is normally present as the free (A) Urine kidneys. Male (C) 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol to Raise plasma calcium and phosphate skeletal health and osteoporosis. A 62-year-old woman stumbles on a (B) Lower plasma calcium and raise Griffin JE, Ojeda SR, eds. Textbook of En- crack in the sidewalk, falls, and breaks plasma phosphate docrine Physiology. She suffers from a form (C) Raise plasma calcium and lower Oxford University Press, 2000. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1 - there is an equivalent loss of bone hydroxylase. National Osteoporosis Foundation Web (B) Rickets Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and site. CASE STUDIES FOR PART IX • • • CASE STUDY FOR CHAPTER 31 CASE STUDY FOR CHAPTER 32 Diabetes Mellitus Growth Hormone Charlie was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus A 6-year-old boy was brought to the clinic to be evalu- during the summer of his eighth year. The boy’s height is between 2 suspected he was drinking excessive amounts of fluids and 3 standard deviations below the average height for that summer; however, he was in and out of the house his age. Initial physical examination rules out head and visiting friends, and she couldn’t be certain. The patient’s ing an afternoon at a friend’s birthday party, Charlie family history does not suggest similar short stature in drank nearly 3 quarts of fruit juice; his mother became immediate relatives. Why would the doctor order a blood test for levels of Charlie’s tests are normal, except that he tests positive IGFBP3 and IGF-I? The levels of IGFBP3 and IGF-I are below the normal range blood sugar is elevated (620 mg/dL). What is GH resistance, and what measurements would sup- placed on a regimen of daily insulin injections, along port the presence of this problem? His mother is instructed about changes in Charlie’s prior to the onset of puberty? Why is resistance to insulin action a potential adverse effect for several follow-up visits and to adjust his insulin of giving extremely high pharmacological doses of GH for a dosage. What might be the reason for the decrease in Charlie’s C- secretion the blood concentration may be undetectable in peptide after one year? Why weren’t plasma insulin values measured after one of IGF-I and IGFBP3, both of which are easily detectable in year? The decrease in C-peptide reflects further destruction of would indicate insufficient GH release. However, low levels Charlie’s insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells and indi- of IGF-I and IGFBP3 could also be due to a defect in the GH cates a further impairment in his own insulin production ca- receptor, resulting in GH resistance. Because Charlie is taking insulin injections, measurement of sult of low levels of IGF-I and IGFBP3 in the blood. However, circulating insulin levels would not have provided any infor- the blood concentration of GH is high. This information is inferred ceptor, which prevent GH from stimulating the production from the C-peptide data. CHAPTER 36 Endocrine Regulation of Calcium, Phosphate, and Bone Metabolism 647 Measurement of a GH in the blood should detect the ex- 5. A thionamide compound should first be used to inhibit thy- tremely high levels of the hormone to confirm diagnosis. GH and IGF-I stimulate the epiphyseal growth plate of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and may result in a reduction long bones to grow. The drug may be withdrawn after sev- years after puberty, at which time GH and IGF-I can no eral months of treatment to determine whether the disease longer stimulate the growth of the bone.
Closure of the urachus occurs in most fetuses with An abnormal pattern of sex hormone production in the em- progressive development of the urinary system discount doxepin 10 mg without prescription anxiety and pregnancy. A patent urachus bryo may result in considerable malformation of the developing will generally go undetected unless there is extreme difficulty genitalia generic doxepin 10 mg overnight delivery anxiety symptoms definition. These anomalies may be cosmetic concern only, or they with urination, such as may be caused by an enlarged prostate. Some may be so severe as to such a case, some urine may be forced through the patent ura- preclude determination of an individual’s sex based on external chus and out the umbilicus. Meckel’s diverticulum is the most common anomaly of Also of clinical concern and treatable are the various problems the small intestine. It is the result of failure of the embryonic that may occur during descent of the testes into the scrotum. Present in about 3% of the popu- the normal development of the male fetus, the testes will be in lation, a Meckel’s diverticulum consists of a pouch, approxi- scrotal position by the twenty-eighth week of gestation. Like the appendix, a Meckel’s diverticulum is prone to infec- tions; it may become inflamed, producing symptoms similar to Trauma to the Abdomen appendicitis. For this reason, it is usually removed as a precau- The rib cage, the omentum (see fig. The connection from the ileum of the small intestine to the However, puncture wounds, compression, and severe blows to outside sometimes is patent at the time of birth; this condition is the abdomen may result in serious abdominal injury. It permits the passage of fecal material through The large and dense liver, located in the upper right quad- the umbilicus and must be surgically corrected in a newborn. In pyloric stenosis, there is a narrowing of the liver is extremely serious because of the possibility of internal pyloric orifice of the stomach resulting from hypertrophy of the hemorrhage from such a vascular organ. This condition is more The spleen is another highly vascular organ that is fre- common in males than in females, and the symptoms usually ap- quently injured,especially from blunt abdominal trauma. The constricted opening interferes with the tured spleen causes severe internal hemorrhage and shock. Its Meckel’s diverticulum: from Johann Friedrich Meckel,German anatomist,1724–74 Hirschsprung’s disease: from Harold Hirschsprung, Danish physician, 1830–1916 Van De Graaff: Human IV. Surface and Regional © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition Anatomy Companies, 2001 Chapter 10 Surface and Regional Anatomy 337 prompt removal (splenectomy) is necessary to keep the patient in gastric juice. The spleen may also rupture sponta- stomach, including alcohol and aspirin, and hypersecretion of neously because of infectious diseases that cause it to hypertrophy. The danger of a ruptured pancreas is the flow of pancre- Enteritis, or inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, is atic juice into the peritoneal cavity, the subsequent digestive ac- frequently referred to as intestinal flu. Diarrhea is symptomatic of inflamma- blow to one side propagates through the kidney and may possibly tion, stress, and other body dysfunctions. In children, it is of rupture the renal pelvis or the proximal portion of the ureter. Trauma to the external genitalia of both males and females is a relatively common occurrence. The pendant position of the Shoulder and Upper Extremity penis and scrotum makes them vulnerable to compression forces. For example, if a construction worker were to slip and land astride a steel beam, his external genitalia would be compressed Developmental Conditions between the beam and his pubic bone. In this type of accident, Twenty-eight days after conception, a limb bud appears on the the penis (including the urethra) might split open, and one or upper lateral side of the embryo, which eventually becomes a both testes might be crushed. Three weeks later (7 weeks Trauma to the female genitalia usually results from sexual after conception) the shoulder and upper extremity are present abuse. Vaginal tearing and a displaced uterus are common in in the form of mesenchymal primordium of bone and muscle. The physical and mental consequences are gener- is during this crucial 3 weeks of development that malformations ally severe. If a pregnant woman uses certain teratogenic drugs or is exposed to certain diseases (Rubella virus, for example) during Diseases of the Abdomen development of the embryo, there is a strong likelihood that Any of the abdominal organs may be afflicted by an array of dis- the appendage will be incompletely developed. It is beyond the scope of this text to cover all of these dis- ber of limb deformities occurred between 1957 and 1962 as a eases; instead, an overview of some general conditions will be result of women ingesting the sedative thalidomide during presented. It is estimated Knowledge of the clinical regions of the abdomen (see that 7,000 infants were malformed by this drug. Also important are the locations of the linea Although genetic deformities of the shoulder and upper ex- alba, extending from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis, tremity are numerous, only a few are relatively common. Spren- the umbilicus, the inguinal ligament, the bones and processes gel’s deformity affects the development of one or both scapulae.