By P. Angar. John F. Kennedy University.
Infuence of fat and carbohydrate proportions on the metabolic profle in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a meta- analysis cheap 130 mg malegra dxt with mastercard. One-year comparison of a high-monounsaturated fat diet with a high-carbohydrate diet in Type 2 diabetes purchase 130 mg malegra dxt amex. Comparative study of the effects of a one-year dietary intervention of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet on weight and glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes. Comparison of a simple algorithm with carbohydrate counting for adjustment of mealtime insulin glulisine. Effect of wheat bran on glycemic control and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrate and fbre recommendations for individuals with diabetes: a quantitative assessment and meta- analysis of the evidence. Weight loss in obese diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and long-term diabetes outcomes – a systematic review. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with Type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia: an open study. A comprehensive review on salt and health and current experience of worldwide salt reduction programmes. Effects of lifestyle modifcation on central artery stiffness in metabolic syndrome subjects with pre-hypertension and/ or pre-diabetes. Effects of a Mediterranean-style Diet on the Need for Antihyperglycaemic Drug Therapy in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modifcation on diet, weight, physical ftness, and blood pressure control: 18-month results of a randomised controlled trial. Third Report of the expert panel on the detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. The effect of plant sterols or stanols on lipid parameters in patients with Type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol ester consumption on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in subjects on statin treatment. Enteral nutritional support and use of diabetes-specifc formulas for patients with diabetes a systematic review and meta-analysis. The high prevalence of malnutrition in elderly diabetic patients: implications for anti-diabetic drug treatments. Evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes 53 Chapter X: Chapter title head here References 202. Disturbed eating behaviours and eating disorders in Type 1 diabetes: clinical signifcance and treatment recommendations. Brief screening tool for disordered eating; internal consistency and external validity in contemporary sample of pediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes. Caring for people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus engaging in disturbed eating or weight control; a qualitative study of practitioners’ attitudes and practice. Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on foods for persons suffering from carbohydrate metabolism disorders (diabetes). Welcome to Embryology in 2009 and thank you for choosing your next stage in your own development with me! In the past 20 years as a researcher I have seen enormous changes in our understanding of this topic and the methods we employ to further our knowledge. This topic and its associated methodologies are now found at the core of scientific investigations and current medical research. Dr Mark Hill, course coordinator This current page will introduce the current course and link to related online course resources (bookmark this as your start page). Course Outline Course Staff - Dr Mark Hill, Office: Wallace Wurth Building, room G20 (ground floor), Email: m. The School will use that email account as the official electronic channel to communicate with each student. To examine the common principles and differences underlying normal and abnormal development of vertebrates.
In some disease states purchase 130mg malegra dxt with amex, bile does not enter the intestine discount malegra dxt 130mg without prescription, resulting in white (‘acholic’) stool with a high fat content, since virtually no fats are broken down or absorbed. Hepatocytes work non-stop, but bile production increases when fatty chyme enters the duodenum and stimulates the secretion of the gut hormone secretin. The valve-like hepatopancreatic ampulla closes, allowing bile to divert to the gallbladder, where it is concentrated and stored until the next meal. The Pancreas The soft, oblong, glandular pancreas lies transversely in the retroperitoneum behind the stomach. Its head is nestled into the “c-shaped” curvature of the duodenum with the body extending to the left about 15. It is a curious mix of exocrine (secreting digestive enzymes) and endocrine (releasing hormones into the blood) functions (Figure 23. The exocrine part of the pancreas arises as little grape-like cell clusters, each called an acinus (plural = acini), located at the terminal ends of pancreatic ducts. These acinar cells secrete enzyme-rich pancreatic juice into tiny merging ducts that form two dominant ducts. The larger duct fuses with the common bile duct (carrying bile from the liver and gallbladder) just before entering the duodenum via a common opening (the hepatopancreatic ampulla). The smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla controls the release of pancreatic juice and bile into the small intestine. The second and smaller pancreatic duct, the accessory duct (duct of Santorini), runs from the pancreas directly into the duodenum, approximately 1 inch above the hepatopancreatic ampulla. Scattered through the sea of exocrine acini are small islands of endocrine cells, the islets of Langerhans. Unlike bile, it is clear and composed mostly of water along with some salts, sodium bicarbonate, and several digestive enzymes. If produced in an active form, they would digest the pancreas (which is exactly what occurs in the disease, pancreatitis). The intestinal brush border enzyme enteropeptidase stimulates the activation of trypsin from trypsinogen of the pancreas, which in turn changes the pancreatic enzymes procarboxypeptidase and chymotrypsinogen into their active forms, carboxypeptidase and chymotrypsin. The enzymes that digest starch (amylase), fat (lipase), and nucleic acids (nuclease) are secreted in their active forms, since they do not attack the pancreas as do the protein-digesting enzymes. The entry of acidic chyme into the duodenum stimulates the release of secretin, which in turn causes the duct cells to release bicarbonate- rich pancreatic juice. Parasympathetic regulation occurs mainly during the cephalic and gastric phases of gastric secretion, when vagal stimulation prompts the secretion of pancreatic juice. Thus, the acidic blood draining from the pancreas neutralizes the alkaline blood draining from the stomach, maintaining the pH of the venous blood that flows to the liver. The Gallbladder The gallbladder is 8–10 cm (~3–4 in) long and is nested in a shallow area on the posterior aspect of the right lobe of the liver. This muscular sac stores, concentrates, and, when stimulated, propels the bile into the duodenum via the common bile duct. The fundus is the widest portion and tapers medially into the body, which in turn narrows to become the neck. The cystic duct is 1–2 cm (less than 1 in) long and turns inferiorly as it bridges the neck and hepatic duct. The simple columnar epithelium of the gallbladder mucosa is organized in rugae, similar to those of the stomach. When these fibers contract, the gallbladder’s contents are ejected through the cystic duct and into the bile duct (Figure 23. Visceral peritoneum reflected from the liver capsule holds the gallbladder against the liver and forms the outer coat of the gallbladder. Chemical digestion, on the other hand, is a complex process that reduces food into its chemical building blocks, which are then absorbed to nourish the cells of the body (Figure 23. Chemical Digestion Large food molecules (for example, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and starches) must be broken down into subunits that are small enough to be absorbed by the lining of the alimentary canal. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are the three monosaccharides that are commonly consumed and are readily absorbed. Your digestive system is also able to break down the disaccharide sucrose (regular table sugar: glucose + fructose), lactose (milk sugar: glucose + galactose), and maltose (grain sugar: glucose + glucose), and the polysaccharides glycogen and starch (chains of monosaccharides). Your bodies do not produce enzymes that can break down most fibrous polysaccharides, such as cellulose. While indigestible polysaccharides do not provide any nutritional value, they do provide dietary fiber, which helps propel food through the alimentary canal.
Melanin production during pregnancy may also darken or discolor skin on the face to create a chloasma buy malegra dxt 130mg without prescription, or “mask of pregnancy purchase malegra dxt 130mg free shipping. Physiology of Labor Childbirth, or parturition, typically occurs within a week of a woman’s due date, unless the woman is pregnant with more than one fetus, which usually causes her to go into labor early. As a pregnancy progresses into its final weeks, several physiological changes occur in response to hormones that trigger labor. First, recall that progesterone inhibits uterine contractions throughout the first several months of pregnancy. The increasing ratio of estrogen to progesterone makes the myometrium (the uterine smooth muscle) more sensitive to stimuli that promote contractions (because progesterone no longer inhibits them). Moreover, in the eighth month of pregnancy, fetal cortisol rises, which boosts estrogen secretion by the placenta and This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx. Some women may feel the result of the decreasing levels of progesterone in late pregnancy as weak and irregular peristaltic Braxton Hicks contractions, also called false labor. Approximately 1–2 days prior to the onset of true labor, this plug loosens and is expelled, along with a small amount of blood. Meanwhile, the posterior pituitary has been boosting its secretion of oxytocin, a hormone that stimulates the contractions of labor. At the same time, the myometrium increases its sensitivity to oxytocin by expressing more receptors for this hormone. As labor nears, oxytocin begins to stimulate stronger, more painful uterine contractions, which—in a positive feedback loop—stimulate the secretion of prostaglandins from fetal membranes. Given the importance of oxytocin and prostaglandins to the initiation and maintenance of labor, it is not surprising that, when a pregnancy is not progressing to labor and needs to be induced, a pharmaceutical version of these compounds (called pitocin) is administered by intravenous drip. Finally, stretching of the myometrium and cervix by a full-term fetus in the vertex (head-down) position is regarded as a stimulant to uterine contractions. The sum of these changes initiates the regular contractions known as true labor, which become more powerful and more frequent with time. Stages of Childbirth The process of childbirth can be divided into three stages: cervical dilation, expulsion of the newborn, and afterbirth (Figure 28. Cervical Dilation For vaginal birth to occur, the cervix must dilate fully to 10 cm in diameter—wide enough to deliver the newborn’s head. However, it varies widely and may take minutes, hours, or days, depending in part on whether the mother has given birth before; in each subsequent labor, this stage tends to be shorter. In addition, cervical dilation boosts oxytocin secretion from the pituitary, which in turn triggers more powerful uterine contractions. When labor begins, uterine contractions may occur only every 3–30 minutes and last only 20–40 seconds; however, by the end of this stage, contractions may occur as frequently as every 1. Fetal distress, measured as a sustained decrease or increase in the fetal heart rate, can result from severe contractions that are too powerful or lengthy for oxygenated blood to be restored to the fetus. Such a situation can be cause for an emergency birth with vacuum, forceps, or surgically by Caesarian section. Expulsion Stage The expulsion stage begins when the fetal head enters the birth canal and ends with birth of the newborn. It typically takes up to 2 hours, but it can last longer or be completed in minutes, depending in part on the orientation of the fetus. The vertex presentation known as the occiput anterior vertex is the most common presentation and is associated with the greatest ease of vaginal birth. The fetus faces the maternal spinal cord and the smallest part of the head (the posterior aspect called the occiput) exits the birth canal first. In fewer than 5 percent of births, the infant is oriented in the breech presentation, or buttocks down. Vaginal birth is associated with significant stretching of the vaginal canal, the cervix, and the perineum. Until recent decades, it was routine procedure for an obstetrician to numb the perineum and perform an episiotomy, an incision in the posterior vaginal wall and perineum. Both an episiotomy and a perineal tear need to be sutured shortly after birth to ensure optimal healing. Although suturing the jagged edges of a perineal tear may be more difficult than suturing an episiotomy, tears heal more quickly, are less painful, and are associated with less damage to the muscles around the vagina and rectum. Upon birth of the newborn’s head, an obstetrician will aspirate mucus from the mouth and nose before the newborn’s first breath. Afterbirth The delivery of the placenta and associated membranes, commonly referred to as the afterbirth, marks the final stage of childbirth.