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By M. Stan. Elmira College. 2018.

It gives off the mylohyoid branch discount 5mg provera otc, it supplies: ¾ the premolar and molar teeth ¾ the chin ¾ the anterior teeth ¾ the mandible and teeth provera 10 mg generic. Supperior Alveolar Arteries The posterior superior alveolar artery branches from the maxillary artery superior to the maxillary tuberosity to enter the alveolar canals along with the posterior superior alveolar nerves and supplies: ¾ the maxillary teeth, ¾ Alveolar bone and membrane of the sinus. A middle superior alveolar branch is usually given off by the infraorbital continuation of the maxillary artery. It supplies ¾ the maxillary anterior teeth and their supporting tissues Branches to the teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone are derived from the superior alveolar 14 Figure 3: Branches of maxillary artery 15 Nerve Supply The sensory nerve supply to the jaws and teeth is derived from the maxillary and mandibular branches of the fifth cranial, or trigeminal, nerve, whose ganglion, the trigeminal, is located at the apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Maxillary Nerve The maxillary nerve crosses forward through the wall of the cavernous sinus and leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum. The branches of clinical significance include: ¾ a greater palatine branch that enters the hard palate through the greater palatine foramen and 16 is distributed to the hard palate and palatal gingivae as far forward as the canine tooth; ¾ a lesser palatine branch from the ganglion that enters the soft palate through the lesser palatine foramina; and ¾ a nasopaaltine branch of the posterior or superior lateral nasal branch of the ganglion that runs downward and forward on the nasal septum. Entering the palate through the incisive canal, it is distributed to the incisive papilla and to the palate anterior to the anterior palatine nerve. Posterior superior alveolaris nerve Mandibular Nerve The mandibular nerve leaves the skull though the foramen ovale and almost immediately breaks up into its several branches. The chief branches; ¾ the inferior alveolar nerve, it gives off branches to the molar and premolar teeth and their supporting bone and soft tissues. Lingual nerve Muscles The masticatory muscles concerned with mandibular movements include • the lateral pterygoid, • digastric, • masseter, • medial pterygoid, • temporalis muscles. Masseter Muscle The masseter muscle has a function of : • clenching • sometimes active in facial expression • active during forceful jaw closing • may assist in protrusion of the mandible 23 Medial Pterygoid Muscle The medial pterygoid muscle arises from the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate and from the palatine bone. The principal functions of the medial pterygoid muscle are: • Elevation and lateral positioning of the mandible. Historically the term eruption has been used to denote emergence of the tooth through the gingiva although it denotes more completely continuous tooth movement from the dental bud to occlusal contact. Calcification or mineralization (most often visualized radio graphically) of the organic matrix of a tooth, root formation, and tooth eruption are important indicators of dental age. Dental age can reflect an assessment of physiologic age comparable to age based on skeletal development, weight, or height. Deciduous/The Primary teeth The formation of teeth, development of dentition, and growth of the craniofacial complex are closely related in the prenatal as well as the postnatal development period. The “Universal” system notation The primary teeth in the maxillary arch , beginning with the right second molar, are designated by letters A through J. Palmer Zigmonds/Quadrant notation system E D C B A A B C D E E D C B A A B C D E This type nomenclature is commoinly used in japan. The palmer notation is used when there is a need to indicate the individual tooth and its place in the jaws, 29 they use a grid line. Palmer- Zsigmondy/ Quadrant notation System 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 In the quadrant notation system, beginning with the central incisors, the teeth are numbered 1 through 8. The palmer notation is used when there is a need to indicate the individual tooth and its place in the jaws. The ‘Universal’ system notation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 16 17 The Universal system is acceptable to computer system. Tooth Surface towards the cheek ------------ Buccal Tooth Surface towards the lip ---------------- Labial Tooth Surface towards the palate------------ palatal Tooth Surface towards the Midline ---------- mesial Tooth Surface towards the tongue------------ lingual Masticating surface of the tooth is ----------- occlusal Surface of the tooth away from the midline is ---- Distal. Swelling: beginning • oedema, (soft, impressible) • abscess (fluctuation) • heamatoma • tumor- duration, rapidity of growth • salivary gland- intermittent swelling during 36 3. Inspection: swelling, wounds, scars, wrinkles, color (cyanosis pigmentation, localizations, borderlines. Examination of the neck • Lymphnodes: scar, lesions, swelling, tenderness, pulsation deviation of the midline. They are classified as dental caries and none caries diseases None caries diseases include: attrition, erosion, abrasion and fluorosis Dental caries Definition: Dental caries is a pathological condition which appears after eruption of tooth and destroys enamel and dentine and forms cavity. Etiology: Bacteria + ™ G Staphiloccocus, ™ Streptococcus 41 ™ Bacteriodes ™ Spirochets ™ Fusibacteria. Example of anatomical classification: pits and fissure cavity (occlusal cavity), smooth surface cavity. It can occur on with the facial or lingual surfaces, the predominant occurrence of the lesion is the buccal and labials surface of the tooth. Dental instruments are dental chair, hand piece, dental burs, operative, shaping, cutting etc instruments. Treatment of dental caries The treatment depends on the class or depth of the cavity ¾ Restoration is done if the resources are accessible and the there is a professional skilled in the clinic.

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When it contracts and 500 Chapter 11 | The Muscular System flattens order 2.5mg provera, the volume inside the pleural cavities increases purchase provera 2.5 mg without a prescription, which decreases the pressure within them. The external and internal intercostal muscles span the space between the ribs and help change the shape of the rib cage and the volume-pressure ratio inside the pleural cavities during inspiration and expiration. The perineum muscles play roles in urination in both sexes, ejaculation in men, and vaginal contraction in women. The pelvic floor muscles support the pelvic organs, resist intra-abdominal pressure, and work as sphincters for the urethra, rectum, and vagina. The posterior thoracic muscles are the trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, and rhomboid minor. The deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor, and coracobrachialis originate on the scapula. The extrinsic muscles of the hands originate along the forearm and insert into the hand in order to facilitate crude movements of the wrists, hands, and fingers. These muscles are the flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris are the muscles found in the superficial posterior compartment. The deep posterior compartment includes the abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and the extensor indicis. Finally, the intrinsic muscles of the hands allow our fingers to make precise movements, such as typing and writing. The thenar muscles, which are located on the lateral part of the palm, are the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, and adductor pollicis. The hypothenar muscles, which are located on the medial part of the palm, are the abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi. The intermediate muscles, located in the middle of the palm, are the lumbricals, palmar interossei, and dorsal interossei. The large and strong gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus extend and abduct the femur. The lateral rotators of the femur at the hip are the piriformis, obturator internus, obturator externus, superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, and quadratus femoris. On the medial part of the thigh, the adductor longus, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus adduct the thigh and medially rotate it. The thigh muscles that move the femur, tibia, and fibula are divided into medial, anterior, and posterior compartments. The anterior compartment comprises the quadriceps femoris, quadriceps tendon, patellar ligament, and the sartorius. The quadriceps femoris is made of four muscles: the rectus femoris, the vastus lateralis, the vastus medius, and the vastus intermedius, which together extend the knee. The posterior compartment of the thigh includes the hamstrings: the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and the semimembranosus, which all flex the knee. The muscles of the leg that move the foot and toes are divided into anterior, lateral, superficial- and deep-posterior compartments. The anterior compartment includes the tibialis anterior, the extensor hallucis longus, the extensor digitorum longus, and the fibularis (peroneus) tertius. The superficial posterior compartment has the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris; and the deep posterior compartment has the popliteus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus. What are some similarities and differences between the muscles are arranged around the joints of the body. At some point in the future, will this type of technology lead to the ability to augment our nervous systems? Army/Wikimedia Commons) Introduction Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: • Name the major divisions of the nervous system, both anatomical and functional • Describe the functional and structural differences between gray matter and white matter structures • Name the parts of the multipolar neuron in order of polarity 504 Chapter 12 | The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue • List the types of glial cells and assign each to the proper division of the nervous system, along with their function(s) • Distinguish the major functions of the nervous system: sensation, integration, and response • Describe the components of the membrane that establish the resting membrane potential • Describe the changes that occur to the membrane that result in the action potential • Explain the differences between types of graded potentials • Categorize the major neurotransmitters by chemical type and effect The nervous system is a very complex organ system. Kramer’s book Listening to Prozac, a pharmaceutical researcher is quoted as saying, “If the human brain were simple enough for us to understand, we would be too simple to understand it” (1994). That quote is from the early 1990s; in the two decades since, progress has continued at an amazing rate within the scientific disciplines of neuroscience. It is an interesting conundrum to consider that the complexity of the nervous system may be too complex for it (that is, for us) to completely unravel. One easy way to begin to understand the structure of the nervous system is to start with the large divisions and work through to a more in-depth understanding.

Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium #4 Skin discount provera 10mg line, H&E The epithelium of the skin is known as the epidermis generic provera 2.5 mg line. The stratified squamous epithelium lining the esophagus is non-keratinized in humans, but keratinized in some other species. Consult electron micrographs to understand the morphological changes that accompany expansion and contraction of the lumen. Connective tissue is comprised of cells, formed fibers, and amorphous extracellular matrix (ground substance). Both the fibers and ground substance are secreted by the connective tissue cells that are interspersed and embedded in the matrix. Functions of the connective tissue include support and binding together of the other tissues; providing a medium for the passage of metabolites; serving as a storage site for lipids, water and electrolytes; aiding in protection against infection by an inflammatory reaction mediated by cells that have migrated into the connective tissue from the blood; and repair by the formation of scar tissue. Mesenchyme is derived primarily from the mesodermal germ layer of the developing embryo, but the ectodermal neural crest is known to give rise to some mesenchymal cells (ecto- mesenchyme). Reticular connective tissue - forms a supporting framework for spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver, glands, and striated muscle fibers. Adipose connective tissue - a modification of reticular connective tissue, characterized by an extensive intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. Elastic - elastic ligaments (ligamentum nuchae flavate and interspinous ligaments), true vocal cords E. Mesenchyme (Embryonic Connective Tissue) Primitive connective tissue that contains precursors for connective tissue, as well as other tissue types. The large number of cells frequently makes it difficult to distinguish the fibrous component without the use of special stains. The fibers in the matrix have a loose and irregular arrangement, and they consist of collagenous, elastic, or reticular fibers. Fibroblasts and macrophages are the most common cells in loose connective tissue, but mast cells, plasma cells, neutrophils and fat cells may also be found. Examine the scanned image at low power, and note that one surface is indented by pits that are lined by columnar epithelial cells. The lymphocytes, which are located within the interstices of this framework, are not well seen in this slide. At higher magnification observe that the intracytoplasmic lipid has been extracted from the fat cells during the histological preparation of the tissue. The thin peripheral ring of cytoplasm and the flattened peripheral nucleus, coupled with the large central vacuole results in the "signet ring" appearance of fat cells. At higher magnification observe the white fat in which each cell contains a single fat droplet (unilocular). Its thick collagenous (type I) bundles stain intensely with eosin and can be seen to course in various directions. Immediately surrounding the lining cells is a very small zone of pale-staining loose areolar connective tissue. Compare the appearance of the collagen bundles (Type I collagen) and fibroblasts with that of the skeletal muscle fibers on the same section. Tendon top, skeletal muscle bottom #11 Bone, rib (H&E) Find the regions of the dense fibrous regularly arranged connective tissue (tendon). Elastic fibers stain reddish-brown to black and form prominent fenestrated, elastic sheets in the aorta. As in other connective tissues, its matrix is composed of fibers (collagenous or elastic) and a ground substance that is rich in extracellular glycosaminoglycans (particularly the chondroitin sulfates). Cartilage is the primary skeletal tissue of the fetus, and it serves as a model for the development of endochondral bone. In the adult, cartilage forms the articular surfaces of joints, the skeleton of the external ear, the septum of the nose, supporting rings and plates of the trachea and bronchi, and intervertebral discs. At higher magnification observe that a perichondrium surrounds the cartilage; this merges with the cartilage on one side and with the surrounding connective tissue of the other side. This is due to the From top to bottom: masking of the collagen fibers by the high concentration of cartilage, pericardium, the glycosaminoglycans in the ground substance. The general organization of this type of cartilage is similar to that of hyaline cartilage, except that elastic fibers predominate over collagen fibers in the matrix. The deposition of inorganic calcium phosphate salts as hydroxyapatite crystals within its matrix is a distinguishing characteristic of bone. In addition, bone functions as a homeostatic reservoir of calcium and phosphate ions and it encloses the hematopoietic elements of the bone marrow.

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